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常用臨床醫學英文術語

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常用臨床醫學英文術語
  diseases 疾病
  acute diseases 急性病
  advanced diseases 病沉重期,晚期疾病
  chronic diseases慢性病
  communicable diseases 傳染病
  complicating diseases 并發病
  congenital diseases 先天性疾病
  acquired diseases 后天性疾病
  contagious diseases接觸性傳染病
  endemic diseases 地方病
  epidemic diseases 流行病
  functional diseases 機能病、官能病
  infectious diseases 傳染病
  inherited diseases 遺傳病
  malignant diseases惡性病
  nutritional diseases 營養病
  occupation diseases 職業病
  organic diseases 器質性病
  paroxysmal diseases 陣發性病
  periodical diseases 周期病
  primary(principal)diseases原發(主導)病
  secondary diseases 繼發病
  sexual(venereal, social)diseases 性病
  terminal diseases 絕癥
  wasting diseases 消耗性疾病chief complaint 主訴
  clinical manifestation 臨床表現
  delivery history 分娩史
  etiology病因學
  family history 家族史
  history, medical history 病史
  precipitating(induced)誘因
  marital status婚姻狀況
  menstrual history 月經史
  menarche 初潮
  menopause閉經
  past history既往史
  pathogenesis 發病機制
  personal history 個人史symptoms 癥狀
  cardinal symptom 主要癥狀
  classical symptom 典型癥狀
  concomitant symptom 伴發癥狀
  constitutional(systemic) symptom 全身癥狀
  indirect symptom 間接癥狀
  induced symptom 誘發癥狀
  local symptom 局部癥狀
  mental symptom精神癥狀
   symptom-complex (syndrome)symptom 綜合癥,癥候群
  signs體征
  antecedent 前驅征
  assident (accessory) 副征
  commemorative 后遺癥
  sign of death 死征
  diagnostic診斷征
  sign of disease 病征
  subjective 自覺征,主觀征
  vein sign靜脈征vital sign 生命體征
  body length (height of the body) 身高
  body weight 體重
  barrel chest 桶狀胸
  cachexia 惡病質
  compulsive position 被動體位
  critical facies 病危面容
  emaciation 消瘦
  enophthalmos 眼球下陷
  entropion 瞼內翻
  exophthalmos 眼球突出
  flushed face 面色潮紅
  gain (loss) in weight 增加(減輕)體重
  lock-jaw 牙關緊閉
  lordosis 脊柱前凸
  nasal ala flap 鼻翼扇動
  nystagmus 眼震
  obesity 肥胖
  pallor 蒼白
  scolisis 脊柱側凸
  agitation 焦急不安
  debility, weakness 虛弱
  diaphoresis 出汗,大量出汗
  dizziness, vertigo 眩暈
  lassitude, fatigue 無力,倦怠
  malaise 不適
  night sweat 盜汗
  numbness 麻木
  rigor, chill 寒冷,發冷
  perspiration, sweating 出汗
  pruritus, itching 癢,
  somasthenia 軀體無力
  tingling 麻刺感abscess 膿腫
  acidosis 酸中毒
  adhesion 粘連
  alkalosis 堿中毒
  allergy 過敏
  coagulation defect 凝血不良
  congestion 充血
  dehydration 脫水
  distention 膨脹
  edema 水腫
  embolism 栓塞,栓塞形成
  fluid and electrolyte imbalance 水電解質紊亂
  gangrene 壞疽
  hematoma 血腫
  hemorrhage, bleeding 出血
  infarction 梗塞,梗死
  infection 傳染
  inflammation 炎癥
  ketoacidosis 酮酸中毒
  metastasis 轉移
  perforation 穿孔
  necrosis 壞死
  shock 休克
  response 反應,應答
  reaction 反應,感應
  thrombosis 血栓形成
  ulceration 潰瘍fever, pyrexia 發燒,發熱
  continuous fever 稽留熱
  intermittent fever 間歇熱
  low-grade fever 低熱
  remittent fever 馳張熱
  relapsing fever 回歸熱pain 痛
  burning pain 灼痛
  chest(flank,…) pain 胸(脅腹…)痛
  cramp-like pain 痙攣性痛
  dull, diffused pain 彌漫性鈍痛
  pleuritic pain 胸膜炎性痛
  radiating pain (pain radiating to…) 放射性痛(放射到…疼痛)angina 絞痛
  cardiac angina 心絞痛
  backache 背痛
  colic 絞痛,急腹痛
  earache 耳痛
  headache 頭痛
  neuralgia 神經痛
  migraine 偏頭痛
  rebound tenderness 反跳痛
  somatalgia 軀體痛
  sore throat 咽喉痛
  stomachache 胃痛
  toothache 牙痛
  bloody sputum 帶血的痰
  cough 咳嗽
  dry cough 干咳
  expectoration 咳痰
  expectoration of blood 咳血
  hemoptysis 咳血anoxia 缺氧
  apnea 呼吸暫停,窒息
  asthma 氣喘,哮喘
  cheyne stokes respiration 切-斯氏呼吸,潮式呼吸
  dyspnea 呼吸困難
  hyperpnea hyperventilation 過度呼吸,換氣過度
  hypopnea 呼吸不全, 呼吸淺表
  hypoxia 低氧,缺氧
  orthopnea 端坐呼吸
  respiratory arrest 呼吸停止
  suffocation 窒息
  tachypnea 呼吸急促
  fetid breath 口臭
  fruity brea th 呼吸有水果味arrhythmia 心律失常,心律不齊
  atelectasis 肺不張,肺膨脹不全
  cardiac arrest 心搏驟停
  cardiac hypertrophy 心臟肥大
  cyanosis 發紺,青紫
  distension of jugular vein 頸靜脈怒張
  extrasystole 期外收縮
  gallop rhythm 奔馬律
  hemopleura 血胸
  hepatojugular reflux 肝頸靜脈回流
  hypovolemia (循環)血容量減少
  palpitation 心悸
  tachycardia 心動過速
  pneumothorax 氣胸
  thrill 震顫
  absent breath sounds 呼吸音消失
  dull sound 濁音
  hyperresonant 鼓音
  rale 啰音
  rhonchus, rhonchi 鼾音,干啰音
  wheeze 哮鳴音anorexia, loss of appetite 食欲不振,厭食
  dysphagia 吞咽困難
  eructation 噯氣
  belching 噯氣
  flatulence 氣脹
  flatus 腸胃氣,屁
  gaseous distention 胃脹氣
  hematemesis 嘔血
  hiccough, hiccup 打呃,呃逆
  nausea 惡心
  pyrosis 胃灼熱
  regurgitation 反胃,回流
  thirsty 口渴
  vomiting 嘔吐
  anal fissure, crack in the anal canal 肛裂
  ascites 腹水
  board-like rigidity of the abdomen 板狀腹
  decreased tactile fremitus 觸覺性震顫減弱
  exophageal varices 食管靜脈曲張
  fistula 瘺,瘺管
  hemorrhoid 痔
  hernia 疝
  hepatomegaly 肝腫大
  intussusception 腸套疊
  jaundice 黃疸
  muscle guarding, defence of the abdominal wall 腹壁肌衛
  peristalsis 蠕動
  loss of peristalsis 蠕動消失
  mass peristalsis 總蠕動
  retrograde (reversed) peristalsis 逆蠕動
  prolapse 脫垂
  prolapse of anus 脫肛
  rectal prolapse 直腸脫垂,脫肛
  volvulus 腸扭轉calculus 結石, 石
  biliary calculus 膽結石
  vesical calculus 膀胱結石constipation 便秘
  defecation 排便
  diarrhea 腹瀉
  incontinence of feces 大便失禁
  hematochezia 便血
  fecal impaction 大便嵌塞
  occult blood 潛血
  painful straining with defecation 排便痛性牽動
  clay colored stools 陶土色便
  dark, granular/coffee ground emesis 咖啡樣嘔吐物
  fecal vomiting, stercoraceous vomiting 嘔糞,吐糞
  foul fatty stools, steatorrhea 惡臭脂肪便,脂肪痢
  scanty and hard stools 便少而硬
  tarry (black) stools 柏油樣便anuria 無尿
  burning sensation no urination 排尿時的灼燒感
  dysurea 排尿困難,尿痛
  enuresis, bed wetting 遺尿
  frequency of urination 尿頻
  micturation 排尿
  uresis, urination, voiding 排尿
  nocturia 夜尿
  oliguria 少尿
  polyuria 多尿
  tenesmus 里急后重
  vesical tenesmus 排尿時里急后重
  uremia coma 尿毒癥昏迷
  urgency of urination 尿急
  urinary incontinence 尿失禁aciduria 酸尿
  chyluria 乳糜尿
  cylindruia 管型尿
  glycosuria 糖尿
  hematuria 血尿
  ketonuria 酮尿
  pneumatinuria 氣尿
  proteinuria 蛋白尿
  pyuria 膿尿amenorrhea 經閉,無月經
  dysmenorrhea 痛經
  menorrhagia 月經過多
  lochia 惡露
  menorrhea 行經,月經過多
  menstruation 月經
  uterine contraction 子宮收縮blotch 斑點
  bruise 挫傷,青腫
  acne 痤瘡,粉刺
  desquamation 脫皮,脫屑
  ecchymosis 瘀斑
  loss of skin turgor 失去皮膚充盈
  nevus 痣
  papule 丘疹
  petechia 瘀點,瘀斑
  pigmentation 色素沉著
  pustule 膿皰
  purpura 紫癲
  red nodule 紅結節
  roseola 玫瑰疹
  scar 傷疤
  senile plaque 老人斑
  spider anaioma 蛛形痣
  subcutaneous nodule 皮下結節
  urticaria 蕁麻疹
  vesicle 小水皰
  vitiligo 白斑blindness 失明
  blurred vision, visual disturbance 視力模糊
  impaired vision 視力下降
  lacrimation 流淚
  papilledema 視神經乳頭水腫
  photophobia 畏光,羞明
  retinal detachment 視網膜脫離deafness 聾
  hearing loss 聽力喪失
  tinnitus 耳鳴
  epistaxis, nasal bleeding 鼻出血
  impaired smelling 嗅覺障礙
  nasal discharge 鼻涕
  nasal obstruction 鼻塞
  sneeze 噴嚏
  snore 打鼾
  aphonia, loss of voice 失音癥
  hoarseness 嘶啞
  gum bleeding 齒齦出血
  herpes labialis 唇皰疹,感冒瘡
  koplik's spots 科普利克斑
  lead line of the gum 齦鉛線
  salivation, drooling 流口水
  straw-berry tongue 草莓舌
  tremulous tongue 舌震顫atrophy 萎縮
  contracture 攣縮
  deformity 畸形,變形
  dislocation 脫位
  fracture 骨折
  closed (simple)fracture 無創骨折,單純性骨折
  comminuted fracture 粉碎性骨折
  compound fracture 哆開(開放性)骨折
  knock-knee 膝外翻
  opisthotonos 角弓反張
  prosthesis 假體
  spasm 痙攣
  tetany (肌)強直,手足抽搦
  wrist drop 腕下垂aphasia 失語
  ataxia 共濟失調
  coma 昏迷
  consciousness 知覺,意識
  convulsion 抽搐,驚厥
  delirium 譫妄
  delusion 妄想
  faint 昏厥
  hallucination 幻覺
  hemiplegia 偏癱
  increased intracranial pressure 顱內壓增高
  insanity 精神錯亂
  loss of orientation 定向喪失
  mania 躁狂
  memory defects, amnesia 記憶缺損,遺忘癥
  paraplegia 截癱,下身麻痹
  projectile vomiting 噴射性嘔吐
  somnolence, (lethargy) 昏睡,嗜睡
  stupor 木僵,昏呆
  tetraplegia 四肢癱瘓
  unconsciousness 失去知覺
  yawning 打哈欠crisis 危象
  cerebral (febrile, hematic, hemolytic,hypertensive, thyrotoxic, ……) crisis
  腦(熱、血性、溶血、高血壓、甲狀腺中毒…)危象
  failure 衰竭,故障
  central (circulatory, cardiac, myocardiac, peripheral, congestive, renal, respiratory) failure
  中樞(循環、心力、心肌、周圍循環、充血性、腎、呼吸…)衰竭diagnosis診斷
  auscultation 聽診
  inspection 視診
  palpation觸診
  percussion 叩診
  laboratory examination 實驗室檢查
  physical examination 體格檢查
  rectal (vaginal) touch 直腸(陰道)指診
  impression 印象
  tentative diagnosis 暫定診斷
  differential diagnosis 鑒別診斷
  final diagnosis 最后診斷
  prognosis 預后
  prescription 處方
  incubation (latent) period 潛伏期
  prodromal stage 前驅期
  incipient stage 初期
  quiescent stage 靜止期
  alleviation 減輕,緩和
  remission 緩解
  attack 發作
  convalescence (recovery) stage 恢復期
  rehabilitation 康復
  relapse 復發
  sudden death 猝死
  moribund 瀕死的
  course of the disease 病程
  course of the treatment 療程
  indication 適應癥,指征
  complication 并發癥
  contraindication 禁忌癥
  side-effect 副作用
  sequel (sequela), after effect 后遺癥
  therapies 治療方法
  acupuncture therapy 針刺療法
  block therapy 封閉療法
  chemical therpy (chemo-therapy) 化學療法
  combined therapy 綜合療法
  conservative therapy 保守療法
  constitutional therapy 全身療法
  dietetic therapy 飲食療法
  operative treatment 手術療法
  palliative treatment, alleviative treatment 姑息療法
  physical therapy 物理療法
  psychotherapy 精神療法
  radical treatment 根治
  radio-therapy 放射性療法
  supporting treatment 支持療法
  symptomatic treatment對癥療法
  cardiac massage 心臟按摩
  cardiac pacing 心臟起博
  electrotherapy 電療法
  electroshock treatment 電休克療法
  hemodialysis 血液透析
  hyperbaric therapy 高壓氧療法
  insulin-shock treatment 胰島素休克療法
  light therapy 光療法
  therapeutic gymnastics 醫療體育


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