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中華人民共和國擔保法


The Guaranty Law of the People's Republic of China

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  中華人民共和國擔保法

  The Guaranty Law of the People's Republic of China

  (1995年6月30日第八屆全國人民代表大會常務委員會第十四次會議通過)

  (Approved by the 14th Meeting of the Standing committee of the 8th National People's Congress on June 30, 1995 and Effective as of October 1, 1995)

  第一章總則

  Chapter I General Provisions

  第一條為促進資金融通和商品流通,保障債權的實現,發展社會主義市場經濟,制定本法。

  Article 1 This Law is enacted with a view to promoting the accommodation of funds and the circulation of commodities, ensuring the enforcement of creditor's rights and developing the socialist market economy.

  第二條在借貸、買賣、貨物運輸、加工承攬等經濟活動中,債權人需要以擔保方式保障其債權實現的,可以依照本法規定設定擔保。本法規定的擔保方式為保證、抵押、質押、留置和定金。第三條擔保活動應當遵循平等、自愿、公平、誠實信用的原則。

  Article 3 In guaranty activities, the principles of equality, voluntariness, fairness, honesty and credibility shall be observed.

  第四條第三人為債務人向債權人提供擔保時,可以要求債務人提供反擔保。

  Article 4 Where a third party provides a guaranty to creditor for a debtor, the third party may require the debtor to provide him with a counter-guaranty.

  反擔保適用本法擔保的規定。

  The provisions on guaranty in this Law shall apply to the counter-guaranty.

  第五條擔保合同是主合同的從合同,主合同無效,擔保合同無效。

  Article 5 A guaranty contract is an ancillary contract of the principal contract. If the principal contract is null and void, the guaranty contract shall be null and void, accordingly.

  擔保合同另有約定的,按照約定。

  Where it is otherwise agreed in the guaranty contract, such agreement shall prevail.

  擔保合同被確認無效后,債務人、擔保人、債權人有過錯的,應當根據其過錯各自承擔相應的民事責任。

  If a guaranty contract is determined to be null and void, the debtor, the guarantor or the creditor who is in default shall bear civil liability according to their respective fault.

  第二章保證

  Chapter 2 Suretyship

  第一節保證和保證人

  Section 1 Suretyship and Surety

  第六條本法所稱保證,是指保證人和債權人約定,當債務人不履行債務時,保證人按照約定履行債務或者承擔責任的行為。

  Article 6 Suretyship as used in this Law means an agreement pursuant to which a surety and a creditor agree that the surety shall perform the obligation or bear the liability according to the agreement, when the debtor fails to perform his obligation.

  第七條具有代為清償債務能力的法人、其他組織或者公民,可以作保證人。

  Article 7 A legal person, other organization or a citizen capable of assuming debts may act as a surety.

  第八條國家機關不得為保證人,但經國務院批準為使用外國政府或者國際經濟組織貸款進行轉貸的除外。

  Article 8 No State organ may act as a surety, except in the case of securing loans, for onlending, from a foreign government or an international economic organization as is approved by the State Council.

  第九條學校、幼兒園、醫院等以公益為目的的事業單位、社會團體不得為保證人。

  Article 9 Institutions such as schools, kindergartens and hospitals established for purposes of public welfare, and public organizations may not act as a surety.

  第十條企業法人的分支機構、職能部門不得為保證人。

  Article 10 Branches and functioning departments of an enterprise as a legal person may not act as a surety.

  企業法人的分支機構有法人書面授權的,可以在授權范圍內提供保證。

  If a branch of an enterprise as a legal person has a power of attorney from the legal person, it may provide a suretyship within the scope of authority.

  第十一條任何單位和個人不得強令銀行等金融機構或者企業為他人提供保證;銀行等金融機構或者企業對強令其為他人提供保證的行為,有權拒絕。

  Article 11 No organization or individual may compel a bank or another financial institution or an enterprise to provide a suretyship for another; a bank or another financial institution or an enterprise shall have the right to refuse to provide suretyship for another.

  第十二條同一債務有兩個以上保證人的,保證人應當按照保證合同約定的保證份額,承擔保證責任。

  Article 12 Where there are two or more sureties for one obligation, the sureties shall undertake suretyship liability according to their proportion of suretyship agreed in the suretyship contract.

  沒有約定保證份額的,保證人承擔連帶責任,債權人可以要求任何一個保證人承擔全部保證責任,保證人都負有擔保全部債權實現的義務。

  In the absence of an agreement on the proportion of suretyship, the sureties shall be jointly and severally liable. The creditor may demand any one of the sureties to undertake all suretyship liability, and every surety shall have the obligation to ensure all of the creditor's rights.

  已經承擔保證責任的保證人,有權向債務人追償,或者要求承擔連帶責任的其他保證人清償其應當承擔的份額。

  The surety who has undertaken the suretyship liability shall have the right of recourse against the debtor, or have the right to demand other sureties who are jointly and severally liable to discharge the proportion of obligations which they should respectively assume

  第二節保證合同和保證方式

  Section 2 Suretyship Contract and Modes of Suretyship

  第十三條保證人與債權人應當以書面形式訂立保證合同。

  Article 13 A surety and a creditor shall conclude a suretyship contract in writing.

  第十四條保證人與債權人可以就單個主合同分別訂立保證合同,也可以協議在最高債權額限度內就一定期間連續發生的借款合同或者某項商品交易合同訂立一個保證合同。

  Article 14 A surety and a creditor may conclude separate suretyship contracts for a single principal contract, or may reach an agreement to conclude, to the extent of the maximum amount of claim, a single suretyship contract for loan contracts or for certain commodities transaction contracts which successively occur in a given period of time.

  第十五條保證合同應當包括以下內容:

  Article 15 A suretyship contract shall contain the following particulars:

  (一)被保證的主債權種類、數額;

  (1) the kind and amount of the principal claim guaranteed;

  (二)債務人履行債務的期限;

  (2) the time limit for the debtor to perform his obligation;

  (三)保證的方式;

  (3) the modes of suretyship;

  (四)保證擔保的范圍;

  (4) the scope of the suretyship guaranty;

  (五)保證的期間;

  (5) the term of the suretyship; and

  (六)雙方認為需要約定的其他事項。

  (6) other matters the parties deem appropriate.

  保證合同不完全具備前款規定內容的,可以補正。

  If a suretyship contract does not contain all the particulars specified in the preceding paragraph, the particulars omitted may be added by amendment.

  第十六條保證的方式有:

  Article 16 The modes of suretyship include:

  (一)一般保證;

  (1) general suretyship;

  (二)連帶責任保證。

  (2) suretyship of joint and several liability.

  第十七條當事人在保證合同中約定,債務人不能履行債務時,由保證人承擔保證責任的,為一般保證。

  Article 17 A general suretyship refers to a suretyship contract wherein the parties agree that the surety shall undertake suretyship liability in case the debtor defaults.

  一般保證的保證人在主合同糾紛未經審判或者仲裁,并就債務人財產依法強制執行仍不能履行債務前,對債權人可以拒絕承擔保證責任。

  A general suretyship allows the surety to refuse to undertake suretyship liability towards the creditor before a dispute over the principal contract is tried or arbitrated and the obligations are not enforceable even after the debtor's assets have been seized according to law.

  有下列情形之一的,保證人不得行使前款規定的權利:

  A surety may not exercise the right provided in the preceding paragraph in any of the following circumstances:

  (一)債務人住所變更,致使債權人要求其履行債務發生重大困難的;

  (1) The change of the debtor's domicile makes it extremely difficult for the creditor to have the debtor's obligation enforced;

  (二)人民法院受理債務人破產案件,中止執行程序的;

  (2) A People's Court suspends the enforcement proceedings due to its acceptance of the debtor's bankruptcy case; or

  (三)保證人以書面形式放棄前款規定的權利的。

  (3) The surety waives in writing the right provided in the preceding paragraph.

  第十八條當事人在保證合同中約定保證人與債務人對債務承擔連帶責任的,為連帶責任保證。

  Article 18 A suretyship of joint and several liability refers to a suretyship contract wherein the parties agree that the surety and the debtor shall be jointly and severally liable.

  連帶責任保證的債務人在主合同規定的債務履行期屆滿沒有履行債務的,債權人可以要求債務人履行債務,也可以要求保證人在其保證范圍內承擔保證責任。

  Where the debtor of a suretyship of joint and several liability defaults when the time limit for his performance of the obligation provided in the principal contract expires, the creditor may demand that the debtor perform his obligation, or demand that the surety undertake the suretyship liability within the scope of the suretyship agreement.

  第十九條當事人對保證方式沒有約定或者約定不明確的,按照連帶責任保證承擔保證責任。

  Article 19 In the absence of an agreed or explicitly agreed mode of suretyship, the parties shall bear the suretyship liability following the mode of a suretyship of joint and several liability.

  第二十條一般保證和連帶責任保證的保證人享有債務人的抗辯權。

  Article 20 The surety of a general suretyship or a suretyship of joint and several liability shall enjoy the debtor's right of defense.

  債務人放棄對債務的抗辯權的,保證人仍有權抗辯。

  Where a debtor waives his right of defense against the obligation, the surety shall still enjoy a right of defense.

  抗辯權是指債權人行使債權時,債務人根據法定事由,對抗債權人行使請求權的權利。

  The right of defense means a debtor's right to exercise his right of claim on legal basis against the creditor when the creditor seeds to enforce his rights.

  第三節保證責任

  Section 3 Suretyship Liability

  第二十一條保證擔保的范圍包括主債權及利息、違約金、損害賠償金和實現債權的費用。

  Article 21 The scope of the suretyship guaranty includes the principal claim and the interest thereof, default fine, compensation for damage and expenses for enforcing the claim,

  保證合同另有約定的,按照約定。

  unless the suretyship contract provides otherwise.

  當事人對保證擔保的范圍沒有約定或者約定不明確的,保證人應當對全部債務承擔責任。

  In the absence of an agreed or explicitly agreed scope of the suretyship guaranty, the surety shall be liable for payment of all the above costs.

  第二十二條保證期間,債權人依法將主債權轉讓給第三人的,保證人在原保證擔保的范圍內繼續承擔保證責任。

  Article 22 If a creditor transfers, in accordance with law, his principal claim to a third party during the period of the suretyship, the surety shall continue to be bound by the suretyship contract within the scope of the original suretyship guaranty,

  保證合同另有約定的,按照約定。

  unless the suretyship contract provides otherwise.

  第二十三條保證期間,債權人許可債務人轉讓債務的,應當取得保證人書面同意,保證人對未經其同意轉讓的債務,不再承擔保證責任。

  Article 23 Where a creditor permits a debtor to transfer his debts to a third party during the period of the suretyship, a consent in writing shall need to be obtained from the surety; the surety shall no longer be liable if the debts are transferred without his prior consent in writing.

  第二十四條債權人與債務人協議變更主合同的,應當取得保證人書面同意,未經保證人書面同意的,保證人不再承擔保證責任。

  Article 24 When a creditor and a debtor agree to alter the principal contract, they shall have to obtain the surety's consent in writing; the surety shall no longer be liable if the contract is altered without his prior consent in writing,

  保證合同另有約定的,按照約定。

  unless the suretyship contract provides otherwise.

  第二十五條一般保證的保證人與債權人未約定保證期間的,保證期間為主債務履行期屆滿之日起六個月。

  Article 25 If the surety of a general suretyship and the creditor have no agreement on the term of suretyship, the term of suretyship shall be six months from the date of maturity of the principal debts.

  在合同約定的保證期間和前款規定的保證期間,債權人未對債務人提起訴訟或者申請仲裁的,保證人免除保證責任;債權人已提起訴訟或者申請仲裁的,保證期間適用訴訟時效中斷的規定。

  Where the creditor neither files a lawsuit against the debtor nor applies for arbitration during the term of suretyship agreed in the contract of provided in the preceding paragraph, the surety shall be relieved of the suretyship liability; where the creditor has filed a lawsuit or applied for arbitration, the provisions on the interruption of prescription shall apply to the term of suretyship.

  第二十六條連帶責任保證的保證人與債權人未約定保證期間的,債權人有權自主債務履行期屆滿之日起六個月內要求保證人承擔保證責任。

  Article 26 Where the surety of a suretyship of joint and several liability and the creditor have no agreement on the term of suretyship, the creditor shall, within six months from the date of maturity of the principal debts, have the right to demand that the surety undertake suretyship liability.

  在合同約定的保證期間和前款規定的保證期間,債權人未要求保證人承擔保證責任的,保證人免除保證責任。

  If the creditor does not demand that the surety undertake suretyship liability during the term of suretyship agreed in the contract or provided by the preceding paragraph, the surety shall be relieved of the suretyship liability.

  第二十七條保證人依照本法第十四條規定就連續發生的債權作保證,未約定保證期間的,保證人可以隨時書面通知債權人終止保證合同,但保證人對于通知到債權人前所發生的債權,承擔保證責任。

  Article 27 Where in accordance with the provisions of Article 14 of this Law, a surety provides a suretyship to a creditor's claims which successively occur but there is no agreement on the term of the suretyship, the surety may at any time notify in writing the creditor of termination of the suretyship contract, nevertheless, the surety shall be liable for the creditor's claims which vested before the creditor receives the notice.

  第二十八條同一債權既有保證又有物的擔保的,保證人對物的擔保以外的債權承擔保證責任。

  Article 28 Where there are both suretyship and property security for the same claim, the surety shall be liable for the creditor's claim unsecured by the property security.

  債權人放棄物的擔保的,保證人在債權人放棄權利的范圍內免除保證責任。

  If the creditor waives the property security, the surety shall be relieved of his suretyship liability to the extent of the creditor's waiver.

  第二十九條企業法人的分支機構未經法人書面授權或者超出授權范圍與債權人訂立保證合同的,該合同無效或者超出授權范圍的部分無效,債權人和企業法人有過錯的,應當根據其過錯各自承擔相應的民事責任;債權人無過錯的,由企業法人承擔民事責任。

  Article 29 If a branch of an enterprise as a legal person concludes a suretyship contract with a creditor without the written authorization of the enterprise or beyond the scope of the authorization, the suretyship contract shall be null and void or the part of the contract that is beyond the scope of the authorization shall be null and void. If the creditor and the enterprise as a legal person are both at fault, they shall bear their respective civil liabilities commensurate with their own fault; if the creditor is not at fault, the enterprise as a legal person shall be civilly liable.

  第三十條有下列情形之一的,保證人不承擔民事責任:

  Article 30 The surety shall not be civilly liable under any of the following circumstances:

  (一)主合同當事人雙方串通,騙取保證人提供保證的;

  (1) the parties to the principal contract conspire to defraud the surety of a suretyship; and

  (二)主合同債權人采取欺詐、脅迫等手段,使保證人在違背真實意思的情況下提供保證的。

  (2) the creditor to the principal contract resorts to deception or coercion to induce or cause the surety to provide a suretyship against its will.

  第三十一條保證人承擔保證責任后,有權向債務人追償。

  Article 31 The surety, after his assumption of the suretyship liability, shall be entitled to recourse against the debtor.

  第三十二條人民法院受理債務人破產案件后,債權人未申報債權的,保證人可以參加破產財產分配,預先行使追償權。

  Article 32 If the creditor does not seek to enforce his claim after a People's Court's acceptance of the debtor's bankruptcy case, the surety may participate in the distribution of the bankruptcy property and exercise his right of recourse in advance.

  第三章抵押

  Chapter 3 Mortgage

  第一節抵押和抵押物

  Section 1 Mortgage and Mortgaged Property

  第三十三條本法所稱抵押,是指債務人或者第三人不轉移對本法第三十四條所列財產的占有,將該財產作為債權的擔保。

  Article 33 Mortgage as used in this Law means that the debtor or a third party secures the creditor's rights with property listed in Article 34 of this Law without transference of its possession.

  債務人不履行債務時,債權人有權依照本法規定以該財產折價或者以拍賣、變賣該財產的價款優先受償。

  If the debtor defaults, the creditor shall be entitled to convert the property into money to offset the debts or have priority in satisfying his claim from the proceeds of auction or sale of the property in accordance with the provisions of this Law.

  前款規定的債務人或者第三人為抵押人,債權人為抵押權人,提供擔保的財產為抵押物。

  The debtor or the third party specified in the preceding paragraph is the mortgagor, the creditor is the mortgagee, and the property provided as security is the mortgaged property.

  第三十四條下列財產可以抵押:

  Article 34 The following property may be mortgaged:

  (一)抵押人所有的房屋和其他地上定著物;

  (1) houses and other things firmly fixed on the land which are owned by the mortgagor;

  (二)抵押人所有的機器、交通運輸工具和其他財產;

  (2) machines, means of transport and other property owned by the mortgagor;

  (三)抵押人依法有權處分的國有的土地使用權、房屋和其他地上定著物;

  (3) the land-use right to the State-owed land, State-owned houses and other things firmly fixed on the land which the mortgagor is entitled to dispose of according to law;

  (四)抵押人依法有權處分的國有的機器、交通運輸工具和其他財產;

  (4) State-owned machines, means of transport and other property which the mortgagor is entitled to dispose of according to law;

  (五)抵押人依法承包并經發包方同意抵押的荒山、荒溝、荒丘、荒灘等荒地的土地使用權;

  (5) The land-use right to barren hills, barren gullies, barren hillocks, waste flood land and other unreclaimed land contracted by the mortgagor according to law and consent for the mortgage of such right is obtained from the party granting the contract; and

  (六)依法可以抵押的其他財產。

  (6) Other property that may be mortgaged according to law.

  抵押人可以將前款所列財產一并抵押。

  A mortgagor may at the same time mortgage all the property listed in the preceding paragraph.

  第三十五條抵押人所擔保的債權不得超出其抵押物的價值。

  Article 35 The amount of a claim secured by a mortgagor shall not exceed the value of his mortgaged property.

  財產抵押后,該財產的價值大于所擔保債權的余額部分,可以再次抵押,但不得超出其余額部分。

  If the value of the mortgaged property exceeds that of the claim secured, the surplus may be mortgaged again, but not in excess of the surplus.

  第三十六條以依法取得的國有土地上的房屋抵押的,該房屋占用范圍內的國有土地使用權同時抵押。

  Article 36 Where houses on State-owned land acquired in accordance with law are mortgaged, the land-use right to the State-owned land occupied by the houses shall be mortgaged at the same time.

  以出讓方式取得的國有土地使用權抵押的,應當將抵押時該國有土地上的房屋同時抵押。

  Where the land-use right to State-owned land acquired by means of granting is mortgaged, the houses on the State-owned land shall be mortgaged at the same time.

  鄉(鎮)、村企業的土地使用權不得單獨抵押。

  The land-use right to the land used by a township (town) or village enterprise may not be mortgaged separately.

  以鄉(鎮)、村企業的廠房等建筑物抵押的,其占用范圍內的土地使用權同時抵押。

  Where factories and other buildings of township (town) or village enterprises are mortgaged, the land-use right to the land occupied by such buildings shall be mortgaged at the same time.

  第三十七條下列財產不得抵押:

  Article 37 The following property may not be mortgaged:

  (一)土地所有權:

  (1) ownership of the land;

  (二)耕地、宅基地、自留地、自留山等集體所有的土地使用權,但本法第三十四條第(五)項、第三十六條第三款規定的除外;

  (2) the land-use right to the land owned by the collectives such as cultivated land, house sites, private plots and private hills, with the exception of those provided in sub-paragraph (5) Article 34 and sub-paragraph (3) of Article 36 of this Law;

  (三)學校、幼兒園、醫院等以公益為目的的事業單位、社會團體的教育設施、醫療衛生設施和其他社會公益設施;

  (3) educational facilities, medical and health facilities of schools, kindergartens, hospitals and other institutions or public organizations established in the interest of the public and other facilities in the service of public welfare;

  (四)所有權、使用權不明或者有爭議的財產;

  (4) property in relation to which the ownership or the right of use is unknown or disputed;

  (五)依法被查封、扣押、監管的財產;

  (5) property sealed up, distrained or placed under surveillance in accordance with law; or

  (六)依法不得抵押的其他財產。

  (6) other property which may not be mortgaged as prescribed by law.

  第二節抵押合同和抵押物登記

  Section 2 Mortgage Contract and Registration of Mortgaged Property

  第三十八條抵押人和抵押權人應當以書面形式訂立抵押合同。

  Article 38 A mortgagor and a mortgagee shall conclude a mortgage contract in writing.

  第三十九條抵押合同應當包括以下內容:

  Article 39 A mortgage contract shall include the following particulars:

  (一)被擔保的主債權種類、數額;

  (1) the kind and amount of the principal debt secured;

  (二)債務人履行債務的期限;

  (2) the time limit for the debtor to perform his obligation;

  (三)抵押物的名稱、數量、質量、狀況、所在地、所有權權屬或者使用權權屬;

  (3) the name, quantity, quality, condition, location, ownership or ownership of the right to the use of the mortgaged property;

  (四)抵押擔保的范圍;

  (4) the scope of the guaranty of mortgage; and

  (五)當事人認為需要約定的其他事項。

  (5) other matters the parties deem necessary to include in the contract.

  抵押合同不完全具備前款規定內容的,可以補正。

  If a mortgage contract does not include all the particulars specified in the preceding paragraph, the omissions may be added by amendment.

  第四十條訂立抵押合同時,抵押權人和抵押人在合同中不得約定在債務履行期屆滿抵押權人未受清償時,抵押物的所有權轉移為債權人所有。

  Article 40 In concluding a mortgage contract, the mortgagor and the mortgagee may not stipulate that the ownership of the mortgaged property shall be transferred to the creditor in case the mortgagee's claim is not satisfied after maturity of the debt.

  第四十一條當事人以本法第四十二條規定的財產抵押的,應當辦理抵押物登記,抵押合同自登記之日起生效。

  Article 41 Where a party mortgages property provided for in Article 42 of this Law, he shall register the mortgaged property, and the mortgage contract shall become effective as of the date of registration.

  第四十二條辦理抵押物登記的部門如下:

  Article 42 The departments responsible for the registration of mortgaged property are as follows:

  (一)以無地上定著物的土地使用權抵押的,為核發土地使用權證書的土地管理部門;

  (1) the land administration departments which verify and issue certificates evidencing the land-use right if the land-use right to the land to which nothing is firmly attached is mortgaged;

  (二)以城市房地產或者鄉(鎮)、村企業的廠房等建筑物抵押的,為縣級以上地方人民政府規定的部門;

  (2) the departments designated by local people’s governments at or above the county level, if urban real estates or factories and other buildings of township (town) or village enterprises are mortgaged;

  (三)以林木抵押的,為縣級以上林木主管部門;

  (3) the forestry administration departments at or above the county level, if forest trees are mortgaged;

  (四)以航空器、船舶、車輛抵押的,為運輸工具的登記部門;

  (4) the registration departments for means of transport, if aircraft, ships and vehicles are mortgaged; or

  (五)以企業的設備和其他動產抵押的,為財產所在地的工商行政管理部門。

  (5) the administrative departments of industry and commerce in the place where the property is located, if the equipment and other movables of enterprises are mortgaged.

  第四十三條當事人以其他財產抵押的,可以自愿辦理抵押物登記,抵押合同自簽訂之日起生效。

  Article 43 Where a party mortgages other property, he may, of his own will, register the mortgaged property, and the mortgage contract shall become effective as of the date of execution.

  當事人未辦理抵押物登記的,不得對抗第三人。

  If a party does not register the mortgaged property, he may not defend against the claims of third party.

  當事人辦理抵押物登記的,登記部門為抵押人所在地的公證部門。

  If a party intends to register the mortgaged property, the notary department in the place where the mortgagor resides shall be the registration department.

  第四十四條辦理抵押物登記,應當向登記部門提供下列文件或者其復印件:

  Article 44 To register the mortgaged property, a party shall submit to the registration department the following documents or their duplicates:

  (一)主合同和抵押合同;

  (1) the principal contract and the mortgage contract; and

  (二)抵押物的所有權或者使用權證書。

  (2) the certificates evidencing the ownership of or the use right to the mortgaged property.

  第四十五條登記部門登記的資料,應當允許查閱、抄錄或者復印。

  Article 45 Consulting, transcribing or duplicating the materials registered with the registration departments shall be permitted.

  第三節抵押的效力

  Section 3 Effect of Mortgage

  第四十六條抵押擔保的范圍包括主債權及利息、違約金、損害賠償金和實現抵押權的費用。

  Article 46 The scope of guaranty of mortgage includes the principal debt and the interest thereof, default fine, compensation for damage and expenses for enforcing the mortgage,

  抵押合同另有約定的,按照約定。

  unless otherwise provided in the mortgage contract.

  第四十七條債務履行期屆滿,債務人不履行債務致使抵押物被人民法院依法扣押的,自扣押之日起抵押權人有權收取由抵押物分離的天然孳息以及抵押人就抵押物可以收取的法定孳息。

  Article 47 If the mortgaged property is seized by a People's Court because of the debtor's failure to perform his obligation prior to the maturity of the debt, the mortgagee shall, from the date of seizure, be entitled to collect the natural fruits severed from the mortgaged property and the legal fruits which the mortgagor may collect from the mortgaged property.

  抵押權人未將扣押抵押物的事實通知應當清償法定孳息的義務人的,抵押權的效力不及于該孳息。

  If the mortgagee fails to notify the person who has the obligation to pay legal fruits of the fact that the mortgaged property is seized, the mortgagee's right shall not extend to such fruits.

  前款孳息應當先充抵收取孳息的費用。

  The fruits mentioned in the preceding paragraph shall first be used to pay the expenses for collecting the fruits.

  第四十八條抵押人將已出租的財產抵押的,應當書面告知承租人,原租賃合同繼續有效。

  Article 48 If a mortgagor mortgages leased property, he shall notify the lessee of the fact in writing, and the original contract of lease continues in effect.

  第四十九條抵押期間,抵押人轉讓已辦理登記的抵押物的,應當通知抵押權人并告知受讓人轉讓物已經抵押的情況;抵押人未通知抵押權人或者未告知受讓人的,轉讓行為無效。

  Article 49 If a mortgagor transfers mortgaged property already registered during the period of mortgage, he shall notify the mortgagee and inform the transferee that the transferred property is mortgaged; if the mortgagor fails to notify the mortgagee or inform the transferee of the fact, the transfer shall be null and void.

  轉讓抵押物的價款明顯低于其價值的,抵押權人可以要求抵押人提供相應的擔保;抵押人不提供的,不得轉讓抵押物。

  If the proceeds expected from the transfer of the mortgaged property are evidently less than its value, the mortgagee may demand that the mortgagor provide an additional guaranty; if the mortgagor fails to provide to additional guaranty, then he may not transfer the mortgaged property.

  抵押人轉讓抵押物所得的價款,應當向抵押權人提前清償所擔保的債權或者向與抵押權人約定的第三人提存。

  The proceeds which the mortgagor obtains from the transfer of the mortgaged property shall first be used to liquidate the claim secured by the mortgage or it shall be deposited with a third party agreed upon by the mortgagor and the mortgagee.

  超過債權數額的部分,歸抵押人所有,不足部分由債務人清償。

  If the proceeds exceed the claim, the balance shall belong to the mortgagor; if the proceeds do not cover the claim, the difference shall be paid by the debtor.

  第五十條抵押權不得與債權分離而單獨轉讓或者作為其他債權的擔保。

  Article 50 The right of mortgage may not be separated from the creditor's rights and transferred singly, nor used to secure other creditors' rights.

  第五十一條抵押人的行為足以使抵押物價值減少的,抵押權人有權要求抵押人停止其行為。

  Article 51 Where a mortgagor's acts are likely to cause the value of the mortgaged property to decline, the mortgagee shall be entitled to demand that the mortgagor cease and deist from such acts.

  抵押物價值減少時,抵押權人有權要求抵押人恢復抵押物的價值,或者提供與減少的價值相當的擔保。

  Where the value of the mortgaged property has declined, the mortgagee shall be entitled to demand that the mortgagor restore the original value of the mortgaged property or provide security corresponding to the amount of the lost value.

  抵押人對抵押物價值減少無過錯的,抵押權人只能在抵押人因損害而得到的賠償范圍內要求提供擔保。

  If the mortgagor is not responsible for the decline in the value of the mortgaged property, the mortgagee may only demand that the mortgagor provide security to cover the loss resulting from the decline in value.

  抵押物價值未減少的部分,仍作為債權的擔保。

  The part of the mortgaged property whose value has not declined shall continue to serve as guaranty for the creditor's right.

  第五十二條抵押權與其擔保的債權同時存在,債權消滅的,抵押權也消滅。

  Article 52 The right of mortgage shall co-exist with the creditor's right secured. If the creditor's right lapses, the right of mortgage shall also lapse.

  第四節抵押權的實現

  Section 4 Enforcement of Mortgage Right

  第五十三條債務履行期屆滿抵押權人未受清償的,可以與抵押人協議以抵押物折價或者以拍賣、變賣該抵押物所得的價款受償;協議不成的,抵押權人可以向人民法院提起訴訟。

  Article 53 The mortgagee, who is not paid at the maturity of the obligation, may, through agreement with the mortgagor, be paid out of the proceeds from the conversion of the mortgaged property or from the auction or sale of the mortgaged property; if they fail to reach an agreement, the mortgagee may bring a lawsuit in a People's Court.

  抵押物折價或者拍賣、變賣后,其價款超過債權數額的部分歸抵押人所有,不足部分由債務人清償。

  If the proceeds from the conversion of the mortgaged property or the proceeds from the auction or sale thereof exceed the claim, the balance shall be returned to the mortgagor; if the proceeds do not cover the claim, the difference shall be paid by the debtor.

  第五十四條同一財產向兩個以上債權人抵押的,拍賣、變賣抵押物所得的價款按照以下規定清償:

  Article 54 Where the same property is mortgaged to two or more creditors, the proceeds from the auction or sale of the mortgaged property shall be used for liquidation according to the following provisions:

  (一)抵押合同以登記生效的,按照抵押物登記的先后順序清償;順序相同的,按照債權比例清償;

  (1) Where a mortgage contract takes effect with its registration, the liquidation shall be made in the order of the time of registration of the mortgaged property; if the registration is in the same order, the liquidation shall be made according to the respective proportions of the claims;

  (二)抵押合同自簽訂之日起生效的,該抵押物已登記的,按照本條第(一)項規定清償;未登記的,按照合同生效時間的先后順序清償,順序相同的,按照債權比例清償。

  (2) Where a mortgage contract takes effect on the date of its execution and the mortgaged property is registered, the liquidation shall be made according to the provisions of sub-paragraph (1) of this Article;

  未登記的,按照合同生效時間的先后順序清償,順序相同的,按照債權比例清償。抵押物已登記的先于未登記的受償。

  The claim secured by registered mortgage shall be satisfied prior to the claim secured by unregistered mortgage.

  第五十五條城市房地產抵押合同簽訂后,土地上新增的房屋不屬于抵押物。

  Article 55 After the execution of a contract in which urban real estate is mortgaged , the newly-built houses on the land shall not be included in the mortgaged property.

  需要拍賣該抵押的房地產時,可以依法將該土地上新增的房屋與抵押物一同拍賣,但對拍賣新增房屋所得,抵押權人無權優先受償。

  Where it is necessary to auction the mortgaged real estate, the newly-built houses on the land may be auctioned, according to law, together with the mortgaged property, but the mortgagee shall have no right to enjoy the priority of having his claim satisfied with the proceeds from auction of the newly-built houses.

  依照本法規定以承包的荒地的土地使用權抵押的,或者以鄉(鎮)、村企業的廠房等建筑物占用范圍內的土地使用權抵押的,在實現抵押權后,未經法定程序不得改變土地集體所有和土地用途。

  Where the land-use right to contracted barren hills is mortgaged or the land-use right to the land occupied by the factories and other buildings of a township (town) or village enterprise is mortgaged in accordance with the provisions of this Law, the collective ownership and the uses of the land may not be altered without following the legal procedure after enforcement of the right of mortgage.

  第五十六條拍賣劃撥的國有土地使用權所得的價款,在依法繳納相當于應繳納的土地使用權出讓金的款額后,抵押權人有優先受償權。

  Article 56 The mortgagee shall be entitled to the priority of having his claim satisfied with the proceeds from auction of the land-use right to the allocated State-owned land after payment of the granting fees for the land-use right.

  第五十七條為債務人抵押擔保的第三人,在抵押權人實現抵押權后,有權向債務人追償。

  Article 57 The third party who provides guaranty of mortgage for the debtor shall have the right of recourse against the debtor after enforcement of the right of mortgage by the mortgagee.

  第五十八條抵押權因抵押物滅失而消滅。

  Article 58 The right of mortgage shall lapse due to loss or destruction of the mortgaged property.

  因滅失所得的賠償金,應當作為抵押財產。

  The compensation obtained for the loss or destruction shall be used as the mortgaged property.

  第五節最高額抵押

  Section 5 Mortgage of Maximum Amount

  第五十九條本法所稱最高額抵押,是指抵押人與抵押權人協議,在最高債權額限度內,以抵押物對一定期間內連續發生的債權作擔保。

  Article 59 A mortgage of maximum amount as used in this Law means that the mortgaged property shall be used to secure the creditor's claims which occur successively during a given period of time and to the extent of the total amount of the claims, as agreed upon between a mortgagor and a mortgagee.

  第六十條借款合同可以附最高額抵押合同。

  Article 60 A loan contract may be accompanied by a contract of mortgage of maximum amount.

  債權人與債務人就某項商品在一定期間內連續發生交易而簽訂的合同,可以附最高額抵押合同。

  The contract executed by a creditor and a debtor for the continuous transaction of a specific commodity in a given period of time may be accompanied by a contract of mortgage of maximum amount.

  第六十一條最高額抵押的主合同債權不得轉讓。

  Article 61 The creditor's right to the principal contract secured by a mortgage of maximum amount may not be transferred.

  第六十二條最高額抵押除適用本節規定外,適用本章其他規定。

  Article 62 The provisions of this section plus other provisions of this Chapter shall apply to mortgage of maximum amount.

  第四章質押

  Chapter 4 Pledge

  第一節動產質押

  Section 1 Pledge of Movables

  第六十三條本法所稱動產質押,是指債務人或者第三人將其動產移交債權人占有,將該動產作為債權的擔保。

  Article 63 Pledge of movables as used in this Law means that the debtor or a third party transfers the possession of his movables to the creditor as a security for debt.

  債務人不履行債務時,債權人有權依照本法規定以該動產折價或者以拍賣、變賣該動產的價款優先受償。

  If the debtor defaults, the creditor shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Law, be entitled to convert the property into money as payment of the debt or enjoy priority of having his claim satisfied with the proceeds of auction or sale of the pledged property.

  前款規定的債務人或者第三人為出質人,債權人為質權人,移交的動產為質物。

  The debtor or the third party mentioned in the proceeding paragraph shall be the pledgor, the creditor shall be the pledgee, and the movables transferred shall be the pledged property.

  第六十四條出質人和質權人應當以書面形式訂立質押合同。

  Article 64 A pledgor and a pledgee shall conclude a pledge contract in writing.

  質押合同自質物移交于質權人占有時生效。

  A pledge contract shall become effective upon the delivery of the pledged property to the possession of the pledgee.

  第六十五條質押合同應當包括以下內容:

  Article 65 A pledge contract shall include the following particulars:

  (一)被擔保的主債權種類、數額;

  (1) the kind and amount of the principal debt secured;

  (二)債務人履行債務的期限;

  (2) the time limit for the debtor to perform his obligation;

  (三)質物的名稱、數量、質量、狀況;

  (3) the name, quantity, quality and condition of the pledged property;

  (四)質押擔保的范圍;

  (4) the scope of the guaranty of pledge;

  (五)質物移交的時間;

  (5) the time for delivering the pledged property; and

  (六)當事人認為需要約定的其他事項。

  (6) other matters the parties deem necessary to include in the contract.

  質押合同不完全具備前款規定內容的,可以補正。

  If a pledge contract does not contain all the particulars specified in the preceding paragraph, the omissions may be added by amendment.

  第六十六條出質人和質權人在合同中不得約定在債務履行期屆滿質權人未受清償時,質物的所有權轉移為質權人所有。

  Article 66 A pledgor and a pledgee may not stipulate in the contract that ownership of the pledged property shall be transferred to the pledgee if the obligation is not discharged at its maturity.

  第六十七條質押擔保的范圍包括主債權及利息、違約金、損害賠償金、質物保管費用和實現質權的費用。

  Article 67 The scope of guaranty of pledge includes the principal claim and the interest thereof, default fine, the compensation for damage, the storage charges and the cost of enforcing the right of the pledge.

  質押合同另有約定的,按照約定。

  If otherwise provided for in the pledge contract, the provisions there shall apply.

  第六十八條質權人有權收取質物所生的孳息。

  Article 68 The pledgee shall be entitled to collect the fruits derived from the pledged property.

  質押合同另有約定的,按照約定。

  If otherwise provided for in the pledge contract, the provisions there shall apply.

  前款孳息應當先充抵收取孳息的費用。

  The fruits mentioned in the preceding paragraph shall first be used to pay the expenses for collecting the fruits.

  第六十九條質權人負有妥善保管質物的義務。

  Article 69 The pledgee shall have the obligation to maintain the pledged property in good condition.

  因保管不善致使質物滅失或者毀損的,質權人應當承擔民事責任。

  The pledgee shall be civilly liable for the loss or destruction of or damage to the pledged property resulting from his negligence in storage.

  質權人不能妥善保管質物可能致使其滅失或者毀損的,出質人可以要求質權人將質物提存,或者要求提前清償債權而返還質物。

  Where the pledgee is unable to maintain the pledged property in good condition and may thus cause loss or destruction of or damage to the pledged property, the pledgor may demand that the pledgee have the pledged property deposited, or demand that his obligation be discharged in advance and the pledged property returned.

  第七十條質物有損壞或者價值明顯減少的可能,足以危害質權人權利的,質權人可以要求出質人提供相應的擔保。

  Article 70 Where there is a possibility for the pledged property to perish or for its value to obviously decline to a point sufficient to impair the rights of the pledgee, the pledgee may demand that the pledgor provide additional security in like amount.

  出質人不提供的,質權人可以拍賣或者變賣質物,并與出質人協議將拍賣或者變賣所得的價款用于提前清償所擔保的債權或者向與出質人約定的第三人提存。

  If the pledgor refuses to provide the additional security, the pledgee may auction or sell the pledged property, and conclude an agreement with the pledgor that the proceeds from the auction or sale shall be used to pay in advance the debt secured or be deposited with a third party as agreed upon with the pledgor.

  第七十一條債務履行期屆滿債務人履行債務的,或者出質人提前清償所擔保的債權的,質權人應當返還質物。

  Article 71 Where the debtor performs his obligation at its maturity, or where the pledgor pays, prior to maturity, the debt secured, the pledgee shall return the pledged property.

  債務履行期屆滿質權人未受清償的,可以與出質人協議以質物折價,也可以依法拍賣、變賣質物。

  If the pledgee is not paid at the maturity of the obligation, he may conclude an agreement with the pledgor that the pledged property be converted into money in order to pay the debt, or he may auction or sell the said property according to law.

  質物折價或者拍賣、變賣后,其價款超過債權數額的部分歸出質人所有,不足部分由債務人清償。

  Where the money converted from the pledged property or the proceeds from auction or sale exceed the debt secured, the balance shall be paid to the pledgor. Where the money or the proceeds do not cover the whole debt secured, the difference shall be paid by the debtor.

  第七十二條為債務人質押擔保的第三人,在質權人實現質權后,有權向債務人追償。

  Article 72 The third party who secures the obligation of the debtor shall have the right of recourse against the debtor after the pledgee's enforcement of the right of the pledge.

  第七十三條質權因質物滅失而消滅。

  Article 73 The right of pledge shall lapse due to loss or destruction of the pledged property.

  因滅失所得的賠償金,應當作為出質財產。

  The compensation obtained for the loss or destruction shall be used as the pledged property.

  第七十四條質權與其擔保的債權同時存在,債權消滅的,質權也消滅。

  Article 74 The right of pledge shall co-exist with the creditor's right secured. When the creditor's right lapses, the right of pledge shall also lapse.

  第二節權利質押

  Section 2 Pledge of Rights

  第七十五條下列權利可以質押:

  Article 75 The following rights may be pledged:

  (一)匯票、支票、本票、債券、存款單、倉單、提單;

  (1) bills of exchange, cheques, promissory notes, bonds, certificates of deposit, warehouse receipts, bills of lading;

  (二)依法可以轉讓的股份、股票;

  (2) shares of stocks or certificates of stocks which are transferable according to law;

  (三)依法可以轉讓的商標專用權,專利權、著作權中的財產權;

  (3) the rights to exclusive use of trademarks, the property right among patent rights and copyrights which are transferable according to law; and

  (四)依法可以質押的其他權利。

  (4) other rights which may be pledged according to law.

  第七十六條以匯票、支票、本票、債券、存款單、倉單、提單出質的,應當在合同約定的期限內將權利憑證交付質權人。

  Article 76 Where a bill of exchange, cheque, promissory note, bond, certificate of deposit, warehouse receipt or bill of lading is pledged, the document of title shall be delivered to the pledgee within the time limit specified in the pledge contract.

  質押合同自權利憑證交付之日起生效。

  The pledge contract shall become effective upon the delivery of the document of title.

  第七十七條以載明兌現或者提貨日期的匯票、支票、本票、債券、存款單、倉單、提單出質的,匯票、支票、本票、債券、存款單、倉單、提單兌現或者提貨日期先于債務履行期的,質權人可以在債務履行期屆滿前兌現或者提貨,并與出質人協議將兌現的價款或者提取的貨物用于提前清償所擔保的債權或者向與出質人約定的第三人提存。

  Article 77 Where a bill of exchange, cheque, promissory note, bond, certificate of deposit warehouse receipt or bill of lading, which carries the date of payment or the date of delivery of goods, is pledged and if the date of its payment or delivery of goods is prior to the time limit for the performance of the obligation, the pledgee may be paid or accept the delivery of the goods before the expiration of the time limit for the performance of the obligation, and conclude an agreement with the pledgor that the payment or the goods accepted shall be used to pay in advance the debt secured or be deposited with a third party as agreed upon with the pledgor.

  第七十八條以依法可以轉讓的股票出質的,出質人與質權人應當訂立書面合同,并向證券登記機構辦理出質登記。

  Article 78 Where certificates of stock transferable according to law are pledged, the pledgor and the pledgee shall conclude a contract in writing and register the pledge contract with the securities registration authorities.

  質押合同自登記之日起生效。

  The pledge contract shall become effective on the date of the registration. /The pledge contract shall become effective upon registration

  股票出質后,不得轉讓,但經出質人與質權人協商同意的可以轉讓。

  The certificates of stocks pledged may not be transferred, unless agreed between the pledgor and the pledgee.

  出質人轉讓股票所得的價款應當向質權人提前清償所擔保的債權或者向與質權人約定的第三人提存。

  The proceeds the pledgor obtained from the transfer of the certificates of stocks shall be used to pay in advance the pledgee's claims secured, or be deposited with a third party as agreed upon with the pledgor.

  以有限責任公司的股份出質的,適用公司法股份轉讓的有關規定。

  Where shares of stocks of a limited liability company are pledged, the relevant provisions of the Company Law governing the transfer of shares shall apply.

  質押合同自股份出質記載于股東名冊之日起生效。

  The pledge contract shall become effective on the date on which the pledge of shares is written into the shareholders' name-list.

  第七十九條以依法可以轉讓的商標專用權,專利權、著作權中的財產權出質的,出質人與質權人應當訂立書面合同,并向其管理部門辦理出質登記。

  Article 79 Where the right to exclusive use of trademarks, the property rights among patent rights and copyrights transferable according to law are pledged, the pledgor and the pledgee shall conclude a contract in writing and register the pledge contract with the administrative department in charge. .

  質押合同自登記之日起生效。

  The pledge contract shall become effective on the date of the registration. /The pledge contract shall become effective upon registration

  第八十條本法第七十九條規定的權利出質后,出質人不得轉讓或者許可他人使用,但經出質人與質權人協商同意的可以轉讓或者許可他人使用。

  Article 80 If a right mentioned in Article 79 of this Law is pledged, the pledgor may not transfer or permit the right to be used by another , unless agreed between the pledgee and the pledgor.

  出質人所得的轉讓費、許可費應當向質權人提前清償所擔保的債權或者向與質權人約定的第三人提存。

  The proceeds from the transfer or the use obtained by the pledgor shall be used to pay in advance the pledgee's claims secured or be deposited with a third party as agreed between the pledgor and the pledgee.

  第八十一條權利質押除適用本節規定外,適用本章第一節的規定。

  Article 81 The pledge of rights is governed not only by the provisions of this Section, but also by the provisions of Section 1 of this Chapter.

  第五章留置

  Chapter 5 Lien

  第八十二條本法所稱留置,是指依照本法第八十四條的規定,債權人按照合同約定占有債務人的動產,債務人不按照合同約定的期限履行債務的,債權人有權依照本法規定留置該財產,以該財產折價或者以拍賣、變賣該財產的價款優先受償。

  Article 82 "Lien" as used in this Law means that the creditor shall possess the debtor's movables according to the terms of the contract as provided by Article 84 of this Law. If the debtor defaults on his debt, the creditor shall be entitled to retain the property in accordance with the provisions of this Law and to the priority of having the debt paid with the money converted from the property or proceeds from sale or auction of the property.

  第八十三條留置擔保的范圍包括主債權及利息、違約金、損害賠償金,留置物保管費用和實現留置權的費用。

  Article 83 The scope of guaranty of lien covers the principal claim and the interest thereof, default fine, compensation for damage, cost of preservation of the retained property and expenses for enforcing the lien.

  第八十四條因保管合同、運輸合同、加工承攬合同發生的債權,債務人不履行債務的,債權人有留置權。

  Article 84 In the event of any costs arising from a storage, transportation or processing contract, if the debtor defaults, the creditor shall have the right to retain the property.

  法律規定可以留置的其他合同,適用前款規定。

  The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall be applicable to other contracts whereby the creditor has the right of retention as provided by law.

  當事人可以在合同中約定不得留置的物。

  The parties may specify in the contract the property that may not be retained.

  第八十五條留置的財產為可分物的,留置物的價值應當相當于債務的金額。

  Article 85 Where the retained property can be divided, the value of the part retained shall be equal to the sum of the debt.

  第八十六條留置權人負有妥善保管留置物的義務。

  Article 86 The lien holder shall have the obligation to maintain the retained property in good condition.

  因保管不善致使留置物滅失或者毀損的,留置權人應當承擔民事責任。

  The lien holder shall be civilly liable for loss or destruction of or damage to the retained property resulting from his negligence.

  第八十七條債權人與債務人應當在合同中約定,債權人留置財產后,債務人應當在不少于兩個月的期限內履行債務。

  Article 87 The creditor and the debtor shall stipulate in the contract that the debtor shall perform his obligation within not less than two months after the creditor takes possession of the debtor's property.

  債權人與債務人在合同中未約定的,債權人留置債務人財產后,應當確定兩個月以上的期限,通知債務人在該期限內履行債務。

  If the creditor and the debtor fail to stipulate the same in the contract, the creditor shall, after taking possession of the debtor's property, fix a time limit of two months or more and notify the debtor to perform his obligation within such time limit.

  債務人逾期仍不履行的,債權人可以與債務人協議以留置物折價,也可以依法拍賣、變賣留置物。

  If the debtor defaults within the specified time limit, the creditor may convert the retained property into money upon agreement with the debtor, or may auction or sell the retained property according to law.

  留置物折價或者拍賣、變賣后,其價款超過債權數額的部分歸債務人所有,不足部分由債務人清償。

  Where the money converted from the retained property or the proceeds from auction or sale exceed the debt secured, their balance shall be paid to the debtor; where the money or proceeds do not cover the entire secured debt; the difference shall be paid by the debtor.

  第八十八條留置權因下列原因消滅:

  Article 88 The right of retention shall lapse due to the following reasons:

  (一)債權消滅的;

  (1) the creditor’s right lapses; or

  (二)債務人另行提供擔保并被債權人接受的。

  (2) the debtor gives other security which is accepted by the creditor.

  第六章定金

  Chapter 6 Deposit

  第八十九條當事人可以約定一方向對方給付定金作為債權的擔保。

  Article 89 The parties may agree that one party shall pay a deposit to the other for the security of a debt. 債務人履行債務后,定金應當抵作價款或者收回。

  After the debtor performs his obligation, the deposit shall either be retained as partial payment or be returned. 給付定金的一方不履行約定的債務的,無權要求返還定金;收受定金的一方不履行約定的債務的,應當雙倍返還定金。

  If the party paying the deposit defaults, he shall have no right to demand the return of the deposit; if the party accepting the deposit defaults, he shall return twice the amount of the deposit.

  第九十條定金應當以書面形式約定。

  Article 90 The deposit shall be executed in written form.

  當事人在定金合同中應當約定交付定金的期限。

  The parties shall specify the time limit for the delivery of the deposit in the deposit contract.

  定金合同從實際交付定金之日起生效。

  The deposit contract shall become effective on the date of the actual delivery of the deposit.

  第九十一條定金的數額由當事人約定,但不得超過主合同標的額的百分之二十。

  Article 91 The amount of the deposit shall be stipulated by the parties, but it shall not exceed 20 percent of the amount of the principal contract.

  第七章附則

  Chapter 7 Supplementary Provisions

  第九十二條本法所稱不動產是指土地以及房屋、林木等地上定著物。

  Article 92 The "immovables" as used in this Law means land, and houses, forest, tress and other things firmly fixed on the land.

  本法所稱動產是指不動產以外的物。

  The movables as used in this Law means things other than the immovables.

  第九十三條本法所稱保證合同、抵押合同、質押合同、定金合同可以是單獨訂立的書面合同,包括當事人之間的具有擔保性質的信函、傳真等,也可以是主合同中的擔保條款。

  Article 93 "Suretyship contract", "mortgage contract", "pledge contract" or "deposit contract" as used in this Law may be contract concluded separately in writing that includes the letters and telex in the nature of guaranty between the parties, or the guaranty clauses in the principal contract.

  第九十四條抵押物、質物、留置物折價或者變賣,應當參照市場價格。

  Article 94 Where the mortgaged property, the pledged property or the retained property is converted into money or sold, the price shall be fixed with reference to the market price.

  第九十五條海商法等法律對擔保有特別規定的,依照其規定。

  Article 95 Where the Maritime Code and other laws have special provisions on guaranty, such provisions shall apply.

  第九十六條本法自1995年10月1日起施行。

  Article 96 This Law shall be implemented as of October 1, 1995.

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希尼爾翻譯公司  2014-10-24