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中華人民共和國草原法


Grassland Law of the People's Republic of China

From:青島希尼爾翻譯公司 http://www.eacrwc.tw

  中華人民共和國草原法

  Grassland Law of the People's Republic of China

  第一條 為了加強草原的保護、管理、建設和合理利用,保護和改善生態環境,發展現代化畜牧業,促進民族自治地方經濟的繁榮,適應社會主義建設和人民生活的需要,根據中華人民共和國憲法,制定本法。

  Article 1. This Law is formulated in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China with a view to improving the protection, management and development of grasslands and ensuring their rational use; protecting and improving the ecological environment; modernizing animal husbandry; enhancing the prosperity of the local economies of the national autonomous areas; and meeting the needs of socialist construction and the people's life.

  第二條 本法適用于我國境內的一切草原,包括草山、草地。

  Article 2. This Law shall be applicable to all grasslands within the territory of China, including hills and lands covered with grass.

  第三條 國務院農牧業部門主管全國的草原管理工作,縣級以上地方人民政府農牧業部門主管本行政區域內的草原管理工作。

  Article 3. The department of farming and animal husbandry under the State Council shall be in charge of administration concerning the grasslands in the whole country. The departments of farming and animal husbandry of the local people's governments at the county level and above shall be in charge of administration concerning the grasslands in their respective administrative areas.

  第四條 草原屬于國家所有,即全民所有,由法律規定屬于集體所有的草原除外。

  Article 4. The grasslands are owned by the state, that is, by the whole people, with the exception of the grasslands that are owned by collectives in accordance with the law.

  全民所有的草原,可以固定給集體長期使用。全民所有的草原、集體所有的草原和集體長期固定使用的全民所有的草原,可以由集體或者個人承包從事畜牧業生產。

  Grasslands under ownership by the whole people may be assigned to collectives for long-term use. Grasslands under ownership by the whole people, those under collective ownership, and those under ownership by the whole people that are assigned to collectives for long-term use may be contracted by collectives or individuals for pursuits in animal husbandry.

  全民所有制單位使用的草原,由縣級以上地方人民政府登記造冊,核發證書,確認使用權。集體所有的草原和集體長期固定使用的全民所有的草原,由縣級人民政府登記造冊,核發證書,確認所有權或者使用權。

  With respect to grasslands used by units under ownership by the whole people, the local people's governments at the county level or above shall register such grasslands, issue certificates to the said units after verification and thus establish their right to use such grasslands. With respect to grasslands under collective ownership and those under ownership by the whole people that are assigned to collectives for long-term use, the local people's governments at the county level shall register such grasslands, issue certificates to the collectives after verification and thus establish their right of ownership of the grasslands or their right to use them.

  草原的所有權和使用權受法律保護,任何單位和個人不得侵犯。

  The right to own or use grasslands shall be protected by law and may not be infringed upon by any unit or individual.

  第五條 遇有自然災害等特殊情況,需要臨時調劑使用草原的,按照自愿、互利的原則,由雙方協商解決;需要跨縣臨時調劑使用草原的,由有關縣級人民政府組織協商解決。

  Article 5. If there is a need for temporary adjustments in the use of grasslands under special circumstances, such as in the event of natural disasters, the matter shall be settled by the parties concerned through negotiation on the principles of voluntariness and mutual benefit. Where there is a need for temporary adjustments in the use of grasslands that cross the borders of different counties, the county people's governments concerned shall sponsor negotiations for the settlement of the matter.

  第六條 草原所有權和使用權的爭議,由當事人本著互諒互讓、有利團結的精神協商解決;協商不成的,由人民政府處理。

  Article 6. Disputes over the right of ownership of grasslands or the right to use them shall be settled by the parties concerned through negotiation on the principle of mutual understanding and mutual accommodation in the interest of unity. If no agreement can be reached through such negotiation, the disputes shall be handled by the people's governments.

  全民所有制單位之間、集體所有制單位之間以及全民所有制單位與集體所有制單位之間的草原所有權和使用權的爭議,由縣級以上人民政府處理。

  Disputes over the right of ownership of grasslands or the right to use them that arise between units under ownership by the whole people, between units under collective ownership or between units under ownership by the whole people and those under collective ownership shall be handled by the people's governments at the county level or above.

  個人之間、個人與全民所有制單位或者集體所有制單位之間的草原使用權的爭議,由鄉級或者縣級人民政府處理。

  Disputes over the right to use grasslands that arise between individuals, between individuals and units under ownership by the whole people or between individuals and units under collective ownership shall be handled by the people's governments at the township or county level.

  當事人對有關人民政府的處理決定不服的,可以在接到通知之日起一個月內,向人民法院起訴。

  If the parties concerned disagree with the decision made by the people's government, they may file a suit in a people's court within one month after they have been informed of the decision.

  在草原權屬爭議解決以前,任何一方不得破壞草原和草原上的設施。

  Pending the settlement of a dispute, none of the parties concerned may destroy the resources of the grasslands in question or the facilities therein.

  第七條 國家建設征用集體所有的草原,按照《國家建設征用土地條例》的規定辦理。

  Article 7. When grasslands owned by collectives are to be requisitioned for state construction the matter shall be handled in accordance with the provisions of the Regulations Concerning Land Requisition for State Construction.

  國家建設使用集體長期固定使用的全民所有的草原,參照《國家建設征用土地條例》的規定,給予適當補償,并妥善安置牧民的生產和生活。

  If grasslands under ownership by the whole people that are assigned to collectives for long-term use are to be used for state construction, due compensation shall be paid to the collectives concerned and proper arrangements made for the productive pursuits and livelihood of herdsmen with reference to the provisions of the Regulations Concerning Land Requisition for State Construction.

  國家建設在民族自治地方征用或者使用草原,應當照顧民族自治地方的利益,作出有利于民族自治地方經濟建設的安排。

  If grasslands in national autonomous areas are to be requisitioned or used for state construction, due consideration shall be given to the interests of the national autonomous areas and arrangements made in favour of the economic development of those areas.

  國家建設臨時使用草原,按照《國家建設征用土地條例》的規定辦理。使用期滿,用地單位應當恢復草原植被。

  The temporary use of grasslands for state construction shall be effected in accordance with the provisions of the Regulations Concerning Land Requisition for State Construction. When the period of use expires, the unit that has used the grasslands shall restore the grassland vegetation.

  第八條 地方各級人民政府負責組織本行政區域內的草原資源普查,制定草原畜牧業發展規劃并納入國民經濟發展計劃,加強草原的保護、建設和合理利用,提高草原的載畜能力。

  Article 8. The local people's governments at various levels shall be responsible for conducting general surveys of grassland resources within their respective administrative areas and formulating plans for the development of animal husbandry, which shall be incorporated into the plans for national economic development, in order to improve the protection of the grasslands, promote their development and ensure their rational use, and increase the capacity for raising livestock on the grasslands.

  第九條 國家鼓勵草原畜牧業科學研究,提高草原畜牧業的科學技術水平。

  Article 9. The state shall encourage scientific research in animal husbandry on the grasslands in order to raise the scientific and technological level in this field of endeavour.

  國家鼓勵在農、林、牧區和城鎮種草,促進畜牧業的發展,改善生態環境。

  The state shall encourage the growing of grass in farming, forestry and pastoral areas and in cities and towns so as to promote the development of animal husbandry and improve the ecological environment.

  國家保護草原的生態環境,防治污染。

  The state shall protect the ecological environment of the grasslands, to prevent and control pollution.

  第十條 嚴格保護草原植被,禁止開墾和破壞。草原使用者進行少量開墾,必須經縣級以上地方人民政府批準。已經開墾并造成草原沙化或者嚴重水土流失的,縣級以上地方人民政府應當限期封閉,責令恢復植被,退耕還牧。

  Article 10. Rigorous measures shall be adopted to protect the vegetation of the grasslands; land reclamation and destruction of grasslands shall be prohibited. Reclamation of limited stretches of grassland by users of such land must be approved by the local people's governments at the county level or above. Where land reclamation has already caused aridity or serious soil erosion, the local people's governments at the county level or above shall close the area for a limited time and order the reclaimers to restore the vegetation and defer farming for a return to animal husbandry.

  第十一條 在草原上割灌木、挖藥材、挖野生植物、刮堿土、拉肥土等,必須經草原使用者同意,報鄉級或者縣級人民政府批準,在指定的范圍內進行,并做到隨挖隨填,保留一部分植物的母株。

  Article 11. Persons who wish to cut shrubs, dig medicinal herbs or wild plants on the grasslands, scrape alkaline earth off the grasslands or move away fertile soil must secure the agreement of the users of the grasslands and the approval of the people's governments at the township or county level; they must operate within the designated areas, fill the holes in the ground immediately after digging and keep part of the mother plants intact.

  禁止在荒漠草原、半荒漠草原和沙化地區砍挖灌木、藥材及其他固沙植物。未經縣級人民政府批準,不得采集草原上的珍稀野生植物。

  Cutting or digging shrubs, medicinal herbs or other sand-fixation plants on desert or semi-desert grasslands or in arid areas shall be prohibited. No one may collect rare and precious wild plants from the grasslands without the approval of a people's government at the county level.

  第十二條 合理使用草原,防止過量放牧。因過量放牧造成草原沙化、退化、水土流失的,草原使用者應當調整放牧強度,補種牧草,恢復植被。對已經建成的人工草場應當加強管理,合理經營,科學利用,防止退化。

  Article 12. Grasslands shall be used rationally and overgrazing prevented. Where aridity, degeneration or soil erosion occurs as a result of overgrazing, users of the grasslands shall be required to reduce grazing and resow forage grass so as to restore vegetation. Where man-made grasslands have already been established, extra control shall be administered; they shall be rationally managed and used in a scientific way, so as to prevent degeneration.

  第十三條 地方各級人民政府應當采取措施,防治草原鼠蟲害,保護捕食鼠蟲的益鳥益獸。

  Article 13. The local people's governments at various levels shall take measures to combat grassland pests and mice and protect those beneficial animals and birds that feed on pests and mice.

  第十四條 地方各級人民政府應當采取措施,防治草原地區牲畜疫病和人畜共患疾病。

  Article 14. The local people's governments at various levels shall take measures to prevent and treat endemic diseases among livestock and diseases contracted commonly by both human beings and livestock in grassland areas.

  獵捕草原野生動物,應當嚴格遵守當地人民政府關于預防疫病流行的有關規定。

  Hunters of wild animals on the grasslands shall be required to observe strictly the regulations of the local people's governments concerning the prevention of epidemic diseases.

  第十五條 機動車輛在草原上行駛,應當注意保護草原;有固定公路線的,不得離開固定的公路線行駛。

  Article 15. Motor vehicle drivers shall take care to protect the grasslands when driving across them. Where there are regular highways, vehicles may not deviate from them.

  收購牲畜應當按指定的路線趕運和放牧,不得與牧民爭用牧場和水源。

  Purchasers of domestic animals shall drive and graze them along designated routes and may not contend with herdsmen over grazing grounds or water resources.

  第十六條 加強草原防火工作,貫徹“預防為主,防消結合”的方針,建立防火責任制,制定草原防火制度和公約,規定草原防火期。在草原防火期間,應當采取安全措施,嚴格管理。發生草原火災,應當迅速組織群眾撲滅,查明火災原因和損失情況,及時處理。

  Article 16. Efforts shall be strengthened to prevent fires on the grasslands, implementing the principle of " put prevention first and combine prevention with elimination." A responsibility system for fire prevention shall be instituted. Fire prevention rules and pledges shall be formulated and specific periods shall be designated for fire prevention on the grasslands. During those periods, safety measures shall be adopted and rigorously administered. When a grassland fire breaks out, masses of people should be organized promptly to put it out, the cause of the fire and the losses sustained should be determined through investigation and the case should be handled without delay.

  第十七條 在保護、管理和建設草原、發展草原畜牧業等方面成績顯著的單位或者個人,由各級人民政府給予精神的或者物質的獎勵。

  Article 17. Units or individuals that have achieved outstanding success in protecting, managing and developing the grasslands or in developing animal husbandry on the grasslands shall be given commendation or material awards by the local people's governments at various levels.

  第十八條 草原所有權、使用權受到侵犯的,被侵權人可以請求縣級以上地方人民政府農牧業部門處理。有關農牧業部門有權責令侵權人停止侵權行為,賠償損失。被侵權人也可以直接向人民法院起訴。

  Article 18. When a person's right of ownership of grasslands or his right to use them has been infringed upon, he may apply for settlement to the farming and animal husbandry department of the local people's government at the county level or above. The farming and animal husbandry department concerned shall have the power to order the infringing party to stop such infringement and compensate for the losses sustained by the victim. The victim may also directly file a suit in a people's court.

  第十九條 違反本法規定開墾草原的,縣級以上地方人民政府農牧業部門有權責令停止開墾,恢復植被;情節嚴重的,還可以處以罰款。

  Article 19. The farming and animal husbandry departments of the local people's governments at the county level or above shall have the power to order anyone who reclaims grassland in violation of the provisions of this Law to stop reclaiming it and restore vegetation; a fine may be imposed in serious cases.

  第二十條 違反本法規定在草原上砍挖固沙植物和其他野生植物或者采土,致使草原植被遭受破壞的,鄉級人民政府或者縣級人民政府農牧業部門有權制止,并責令恢復植被,賠償損失;情節嚴重的,還可以處以罰款。

  Article 20. If anyone damages the vegetation of the grasslands by cutting or digging sand-fixation plants or other wild plants or by moving away soil in violation of the provisions of this Law, the people's governments at the township level and the farming and animal husbandry departments of the people's governments at the county level shall have the power to stop him and order him to restore the vegetation and compensate for the losses. A fine may be imposed in serious cases.

  第二十一條 當事人對有關地方人民政府農牧業部門或者鄉級人民政府作出的罰款或者賠償損失的決定不服的,可以在接到通知之日起一個月內,向人民法院起訴;對有關罰款的決定,期滿不起訴又不履行的,有關地方人民政府農牧業部門或者鄉級人民政府可以申請人民法院強制執行。

  Article 21. If a party concerned disagrees with the decision on a fine or compensation as made by the relevant farming and animal husbandry department of a local people's government or by a people's government at the township level, it may file a suit in a people's court within one month of being informed of the decision. If upon the expiration of the period a party concerned has neither filed a suit nor obeyed the decision by paying the fine, the relevant farming and animal husbandry department of the local people's government or the people's government at the township level may request the people's court for compulsory execution.

  第二十二條 國務院農牧業部門根據本法制定實施細則,報國務院批準后施行。

  Article 22. The farming and animal husbandry department under the State Council shall, in accordance with this Law, formulate rules for its implementation and shall submit them to the State Council for approval before they are put into effect.

  自治區、省的人民代表大會常務委員會可以根據憲法和本法規定的原則,結合本地方的特點,制定實施細則,報全國人民代表大會常務委員會備案。

  The standing committees of the people's congresses of autonomous regions and provinces may formulate rules for the implementation of this Law in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and the principles laid down in this Law and in the light of the characteristics of their respective localities, and they shall submit the rules to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress for the record.

  第二十三條 本法自1985年10月1日起施行。

  Article 23. This Law shall come into force as of October 1, 1985.

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希尼爾翻譯公司  2014-10-24