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中華人民共和國合同法


CONTRACT LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

From:青島希尼爾翻譯公司 http://www.eacrwc.tw

   中華人民共和國合同法

  CONTRACT LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

  總則

  GENERAL PRINCIPLES

  第一章 一般規定

  Chapter One: General Provisions

  第二章 第一條為了保護合同當事人的合法權益,維護社會經濟秩序,促進社會主義現代化建設,制定本法。

  Article 1 Purpose This Law is formulated in order to protect the lawful rights and interests of contract parties, to safeguard social and economic order, and to promote socialist modernization.

  第二條本法所稱合同是平等主體的自然人、法人、其他組織之間設立、變更、終止民事權利義務關系的協議。

  Article 2 Definition of Contract; Exclusions For purposes of this Law, a contract is an agreement between natural persons, legal persons or other organizations with equal standing, for the purpose of establishing, altering, or discharging a relationship of civil rights and obligations.

  婚姻、收養、監護等有關身份關系的協議,適用其他法律的規定。

  An agreement concerning any personal relationship such as marriage, adoption, guardianship, etc. shall be governed by other applicable laws.

  第三條合同當事人的法律地位平等,一方不得將自己的意志強加給另一方。

  Article 3 Equal Standing of Parties Contract parties enjoy equal legal standing and neither party may impose its will on the other party.

  第四條當事人依法享有自愿訂立合同的權利,任何單位和個人不得非法干預。

  Article 4 Right to Enter into Contract Voluntarily A party is entitled to enter into a contract voluntarily under the law, and no entity or individual may unlawfully interfere with such right.

  第五條當事人應當遵循公平原則確定各方的權利和義務。

  Article 5 Fairness The parties shall abide by the principle of fairness in prescribing their respective rights and obligations.

  第六條當事人行使權利、履行義務應當遵循誠實信用原則。

  Article 6 Good Faith The parties shall abide by the principle of good faith in exercising their rights and performing their obligations.

  第七條當事人訂立、履行合同,應當遵守法律、行政法規,尊重社會公德,不得擾亂社會經濟秩序,損害社會公共利益。

  Article 7 Legality In concluding or performing a contract, the parties shall abide by the relevant laws and administrative regulations, as well as observe social ethics, and may not disrupt social and economic order or harm the public interests.

  第八條依法成立的合同,對當事人具有法律約束力。當事人應當按照約定履行自己的義務,不得擅自變更或者解除合同。

  Article 8 Binding Effect; Legal Protection A lawfully formed contract is legally binding on the parties. The parties shall perform their respective obligations in accordance with the contract, and neither party may arbitrarily amend or terminate the contract.

  依法成立的合同,受法律保護。

  A lawfully formed contract is protected by law.

  第二章 合同的訂立

  Chapter Two: Formation of Contracts

  第九條當事人訂立合同,應當具有相應的民事權利能力和民事行為能力。

  Article 9 Capacity; Contract through Agent In entering into a contract, the parties shall have the appropriate capacities for civil rights and civil acts.

  當事人依法可以委托代理人訂立合同。

  A party may appoint an agent to enter into a contract on its behalf under the law.

  第十條當事人訂立合同,有書面形式、口頭形式和其他形式。

  Article 10 Forms of Contract; Writing Requirement A contract may be made in a writing, in an oral conversation, as well as in any other form.

  法律、行政法規規定采用書面形式的,應當采用書面形式。當事人約定采用書面形式的,應當采用書面形式。

  A contract shall be in writing if a relevant law or administrative regulation so requires. A contract shall be in writing if the parties have so agreed.

  第十一條書面形式是指合同書、信件和數據電文(包括電報、電傳、傳真、電子數據交換和電子郵件)等可以有形地表現所載內容的形式。

  Article 11 Definition of Writing A writing means a memorandum of contract, letter or electronic message (including telegram, telex, facsimile, electronic data exchange and electronic mail), etc. which is capable of expressing its contents in a tangible form.

  第十二條合同的內容由當事人約定,一般包括以下條款:

  Article 12 Terms of Contract The terms of a contract shall be prescribed by the parties, and generally include the following:

  (一)當事人的名稱或者姓名和住所;

  (i) names of the parties and the domiciles thereof;

  (二)標的;

  (ii) subject matter;

  (三)數量;

  (iii) quantity;

  (四)質量;

  (iv) quality;

  (五)價款或者報酬;

  (v) price or remuneration;

  (六)履行期限、地點和方式;

  (vi) time, place and method of performance;

  (七)違約責任;

  (vii) liabilities for breach of contract;

  (八)解決爭議的方法。

  (viii) method of dispute resolution.

  當事人可以參照各類合同的示范文本訂立合同。

  The parties may enter into a contract by referencing a model contract for the relevant contract category.

  第十三條當事人訂立合同,采取要約、承諾方式。

  Article 13 Offer-Acceptance A contract is concluded by the exchange of an offer and an acceptance.

  第十四條要約是希望和他人訂立合同的意思表示,該意思表示應當符合下列規定:

  Article 14 Definition of Offer An offer is a party's manifestation of intention to enter into a contract with the other party, which shall comply with the following:

  (一)內容具體確定;

  (i) Its terms are specific and definite;

  (二)表明經受要約人承諾,要約人即受該意思表示約束。

  (ii) It indicates that upon acceptance by the offeree, the offeror will be bound thereby.

  第十五條要約邀請是希望他人向自己發出要約的意思表示。寄送的價目表、拍賣公告、招標公告、招股說明書、商業廣告等為要約邀請。

  Article 15 Invitation to Offer An invitation to offer is a party's manifestation of intention to invite the other party to make an offer thereto. A delivered price list, announcement of auction, call for tender, prospectus, or commercial advertisement, etc. is an invitation to offer.

  商業廣告的內容符合要約規定的,視為要約。

  A commercial advertisement is deemed an offer if its contents meet the requirements of an offer.

  第十六條要約到達受要約人時生效。

  Article 16 Effectiveness of Offer, Offer through Electronic Message An offer becomes effective when it reaches the offeree.

  采用數據電文形式訂立合同,收件人指定特定系統接收數據電文的,該數據電文進入該特定系統的時間,視為到達時間;未指定特定系統的,該數據電文進入收件人的任何系統的首次時間,視為到達時間。

  When a contract is concluded by the exchange of electronic messages, if the recipient of an electronic message has designated a specific system to receive it, the time when the electronic message enters into such specific system is deemed its time of arrival; if no specific system has been designated, the time when the electronic message first enters into any of the recipient's systems is deemed its time of arrival.

  第十七條要約可以撤回。撤回要約的通知應當在要約到達受要約人之前或者與要約同時到達受要約人。

  Article 17 Withdrawal of Offer An offer may be withdrawn. The notice of withdrawal shall reach the offeree before or at the same time as the offer.

  第十八條要約可以撤銷。撤銷要約的通知應當在受要約人發出承諾通知之前到達受要約人。

  Article 18 Revocation of Offer An offer may be revoked. The notice of revocation shall reach the offeree before it has dispatched a notice of acceptance.

  第十九條有下列情形之一的,要約不得撤銷:

  Article 19 Irrevocable Offer An offer may not be revoked:

  (一)要約人確定了承諾期限或者以其他形式明示要約不可撤銷;

  (i) if it expressly indicates, whether by stating a fixed time for acceptance or otherwise, that it is irrevocable;

  (二)受要約人有理由認為要約是不可撤銷的,并已經為履行合同作了準備工作。

  (ii) if the offeree has reason to regard the offer as irrevocable, and has undertaken preparation for performance.

  第二十條有下列情形之一的,要約失效:

  Article 20 Extinguishment of Offer An offer is extinguished in any of the following circumstances:

  (一)拒絕要約的通知到達要約人;

  (i) The notice of rejection reaches the offeror;

  (二)要約人依法撤銷要約;

  (ii) The offeror lawfully revokes the offer;

  (三)承諾期限屆滿,受要約人未作出承諾;

  (iii) The offeree fails to dispatch its acceptance at the end of the period for acceptance;

  (四)受要約人對要約的內容作出實質性變更。

  (iv) The offeree makes a material change to the terms of the offer.

  第二十一條承諾是受要約人同意要約的意思表示。

  Article 21 Definition of Acceptance An acceptance is the offeree's manifestation of intention to assent to an offer.

  第二十二條承諾應當以通知的方式作出,但根據交易習慣或者要約表明可以通過行為作出承諾的除外。

  Article 22 Mode of Acceptance; Acceptance by Conduct An acceptance shall be manifested by notification, except where it may be manifested by conduct in accordance with the relevant usage or as indicated in the offer.

  第二十三條承諾應當在要約確定的期限內到達要約人。

  Article 23 Timely Dispatch of Acceptance An acceptance shall reach the offeror within the period prescribed in the offer.

  要約沒有確定承諾期限的,承諾應當依照下列規定到達:

  Where the offer does not prescribe a period for acceptance, the acceptance shall reach the offeror as follows:

  (一)要約以對話方式作出的,應當即時作出承諾,但當事人另有約定的除外;

  (i) Where the offer is made orally, the acceptance shall be dispatched immediately, unless otherwise agreed by the parties;

  (二)要約以非對話方式作出的,承諾應當在合理期限內到達。

  (ii) Where the offer is made in a non-oral manner, the acceptance shall reach the offeror within a reasonable time.

  第二十四條要約以信件或者電報作出的,承諾期限自信件載明的日期或者電報交發之日開始計算。信件未載明日期的,自投寄該信件的郵戳日期開始計算。要約以電話、傳真等快速通訊方式作出的,承諾期限自要約到達受要約人時開始計算。

  Article 24 Commencement of the Period for Acceptance Where an offer is made by a letter or a telegram, the period for acceptance commences on the date shown on the letter or the date on which the telegram is handed in for dispatch. If the letter does not specify a date, the period commences on the posting date stamped on the envelop. Where the offer is made through an instantaneous communication device such as telephone or facsimile, etc., the period for acceptance commences once the offer reaches the offeree.

  第二十五條承諾生效時合同成立。

  Article 25 Contract Formed upon Effectiveness of Acceptance A contract is formed once the acceptance becomes effective.

  第二十六條承諾通知到達要約人時生效。承諾不需要通知的,根據交易習慣或者要約的要求作出承諾的行為時生效。

  Article 26 Effectiveness of Acceptance A notice of acceptance becomes effective once it reaches the offeror. Where the acceptance does not require notification, it becomes effective once an act of acceptance is performed in accordance with the relevant usage or as required by the offer.

  采用數據電文形式訂立合同的,承諾到達的時間適用本法第十六條第二款的規定。

  Where a contract is concluded by the exchange of electronic messages, the time of arrival of the acceptance shall be governed by Paragraph 2 of Article 16 hereof.

  第二十七條承諾可以撤回。撤回承諾的通知應當在承諾通知到達要約人之前或者與承諾通知同時到達要約人。

  Article 27 Withdrawal of Acceptance An acceptance may be withdrawn. The notice of withdrawal shall reach the offeror before or at the same time as the acceptance.

  第二十八條受要約人超過承諾期限發出承諾的,除要約人及時通知受要約人該承諾有效的以外,為新要約。

  Article 28 Late Acceptance An acceptance dispatched by the offeree after expiration of the period for acceptance constitutes a new offer, unless the offeror timely advises the offeree that the acceptance is valid.

  第二十九條受要約人在承諾期限內發出承諾,按照通常情形能夠及時到達要約人,但因其他原因承諾到達要約人時超過承諾期限的,除要約人及時通知受要約人因承諾超過期限不接受該承諾的以外,該承諾有效。

  Article 29 Delayed Transmission of Acceptance If the offeree dispatched its acceptance within the period for acceptance, and the acceptance, which would otherwise have reached the offeror in due time under normal circumstances, reaches the offeror after expiration of the period for acceptance due to any other reason, the acceptance is valid, unless the offeror timely advises the offeree that the acceptance has been rejected on grounds of the delay.

  第三十條承諾的內容應當與要約的內容一致。受要約人對要約的內容作出實質性變更的,為新要約。有關合同標的、數量、質量、價款或者報酬、履行期限、履行地點和方式、違約責任和解決爭議方法等的變更,是對要約內容的實質性變更。

  Article 30 Acceptance Containing Material Change The terms of the acceptance shall be identical to those of the offer. A purported acceptance dispatched by the offeree which materially alters the terms of the offer constitutes a new offer. A change in the subject matter, quantity, quality, price or remuneration, time, place and method of performance, liabilities for breach of contract or method of dispute resolution is a material change to the terms of the offer.

  第三十一條承諾對要約的內容作出非實質性變更的,除要約人及時表示反對或者要約表明承諾不得對要約的內容作出任何變更的以外,該承諾有效,合同的內容以承諾的內容為準。

  Article 31 Acceptance Containing Non-material Changes An acceptance containing nonmaterial changes to the terms of the offer is nevertheless valid and the terms thereof prevail as the terms of the contract, unless the offeror timely objects to such changes or the offer indicated that acceptance may not contain any change to the terms thereof.

  第三十二條當事人采用合同書形式訂立合同的,自雙方當事人簽字或者蓋章時合同成立。

  Article 32 Time of Formation in Case of Memorandum of Contract Where the parties enter into a contract by a memorandum of contract, the contract is formed when it is signed or sealed by the parties.

  第三十三條當事人采用信件、數據電文等形式訂立合同的,可以在合同成立之前要求簽訂確認書。簽訂確認書時合同成立。

  Article 33 Time of Formation in Case of Letters or Electronic Messages; Confirmation Letter Where the parties enter into a contract by the exchange of letters or electronic messages, one party may require execution of a confirmation letter before the contract is formed. The contract is formed upon execution of the confirmation letter.

  第三十四條承諾生效的地點為合同成立的地點。

  Article 34 Place of Formation; Electronic Messages The place where the acceptance becomes effective is the place of formation of a contract.

  采用數據電文形式訂立合同的,收件人的主營業地為合同成立的地點;沒有主營業地的,其經常居住地為合同成立的地點。當事人另有約定的,按照其約定。

  Where a contract is concluded by the exchange of electronic messages, the recipient's main place of business is the place of formation of the contract; if the recipient does not have a main place of business, its habitual residence is the place of formation of the contract. If the parties have agreed otherwise, such agreement prevails.

  第三十五條當事人采用合同書形式訂立合同的,雙方當事人簽字或者蓋章的地點為合同成立的地點。

  Article 35 Place of Formation in Case of Memorandum of Contract Where a contract is concluded by a memorandum of contract, its place of formation is the place where the parties sign or seal the contract.

  第三十六條法律、行政法規規定或者當事人約定采用書面形式訂立合同,當事人未采用書面形式但一方已經履行主要義務,對方接受的,該合同成立。

  Article 36 Effect of Failure to Conclude Contract in Writing Where a contract is to be concluded by a writing as required by the relevant law or administrative regulation or as agreed by the parties, if the parties failed to conclude the contract in writing but one party has performed its main obligation and the other party has accepted the performance, the contract is formed.

  第三十七條采用合同書形式訂立合同,在簽字或者蓋章之前,當事人一方已經履行主要義務,對方接受的,該合同成立。

  Article 37 Effect of Failure to Sign in Case of Memorandum of Contract Where a contract is to be concluded by a memorandum of contract, if prior to signing or sealing of the contract, one party has performed its main obligation and the other party has accepted the performance, the contract is formed.

  第三十八條國家根據需要下達指令性任務或者國家訂貨任務的,有關法人、其他組織之間應當依照有關法律、行政法規規定的權利和義務訂立合同。

  Article 38 Contract under State Mandatory Plan Where the state has, in light of its requirements, issued a mandatory plan or state purchase order, the relevant legal persons and other organizations shall enter into a contract based on the rights and obligations of the parties prescribed by the relevant laws and administrative regulations.

  第三十九條采用格式條款訂立合同的,提供格式條款的一方應當遵循公平原則確定當事人之間的權利和義務,并采取合理的方式提請對方注意免除或者限制其責任的條款,按照對方的要求,對該條款予以說明。

  Article 39 Standard Terms; Duty to Call Attention Where a contract is concluded by way of standard terms, the party supplying the standard terms shall abide by the principle of fairness in prescribing the rights and obligations of the parties and shall, in a reasonable manner, call the other party's attention to the provision(s) whereby such party's liabilities are excluded or limited, and shall explain such provision(s) upon request by the other party.

  格式條款是當事人為了重復使用而預先擬定,并在訂立合同時未與對方協商的條款。

  Standard terms are contract provisions which were prepared in advance by a party for repeated use, and which are not negotiated with the other party in the course of concluding the contract.

  第四十條格式條款具有本法第五十二條和第五十三條規定情形的,或者提供格式條款一方免除其責任、加重對方責任、排除對方主要權利的,該條款無效。

  Article 40 Invalidity of Certain Standard Terms A standard term is invalid if it falls into any of the circumstances set forth in Article 52 and Article 53 hereof, or if it excludes the liabilities of the party supplying such term, increases the liabilities of the other party, or deprives the other party of any of its material rights.

  第四十一條對格式條款的理解發生爭議的,應當按照通常理解予以解釋。對格式條款有兩種以上解釋的,應當作出不利于提供格式條款一方的解釋。格式條款和非格式條款不一致的,應當采用非格式條款。

  Article 41 Dispute Concerning Construction of Standard Term In case of any dispute concerning the construction of a standard term, such term shall be interpreted in accordance with common sense. If the standard term is subject to two or more interpretations, it shall be interpreted against the party supplying it. If a discrepancy exists between the standard term and a non-standard term, the non-standard term prevails.

  第四十二條當事人在訂立合同過程中有下列情形之一,給對方造成損失的,應當承擔損害賠償責任:

  Article 42 Pre-contract Liabilities Where in the course of concluding a contract, a party engaged in any of the following conducts, thereby causing loss to the other party, it shall be liable for damages:

  (一)假借訂立合同,惡意進行磋商;

  (i) negotiating in bad faith under the pretext of concluding a contract;

  (二)故意隱瞞與訂立合同有關的重要事實或者提供虛假情況;

  (ii) intentionally concealing a material fact relating to the conclusion of the contract or supplying false information;

  (三)有其他違背誠實信用原則的行為。

  (iii) any other conduct which violates the principle of good faith.

  第四十三條當事人在訂立合同過程中知悉的商業秘密,無論合同是否成立,不得泄露或者不正當地使用。泄露或者不正當地使用該商業秘密給對方造成損失的,應當承擔損害賠償責任。

  Article 43 Trade Secrets; Liability for Disclosure or Improper Use A party may not disclose or improperly use any trade secret which it became aware of in the course of negotiating a contract, regardless of whether a contract is formed. If the party disclosed or improperly used such trade secret, thereby causing loss to the other party, it shall be liable for damages.

  第三章 合同的效力

  Chapter Three: Validity of Contracts

  第四十四條依法成立的合同,自成立時生效。

  Article 44 Effectiveness of Contract A lawfully formed contract becomes effective upon its formation.

  法律、行政法規規定應當辦理批準、登記等手續生效的,依照其規定。

  Where effectiveness of a contract is subject to any procedure such as approval or registration, etc. as required by a relevant law or administrative regulation, such provision applies.

  第四十五條當事人對合同的效力可以約定附條件。附生效條件的合同,自條件成就時生效。附解除條件的合同,自條件成就時失效。

  Article 45 Conditions Precedent; Conditions Subsequent; Improper Impairment or Facilitation The parties may prescribe that effectiveness of a contract be subject to certain conditions. A contract subject to a condition precedent becomes effective once such condition is satisfied. A contract subject to a condition subsequent is extinguished once such condition is satisfied.

  當事人為自己的利益不正當地阻止條件成就的,視為條件已成就;不正當地促成條件成就的,視為條件不成就。

  Where in order to further its own interests, a party improperly impaired the satisfaction of a condition, the condition is deemed to have been satisfied; where a party improperly facilitated the satisfaction of a condition, the condition is deemed not to have been satisfied.

  第四十六條當事人對合同的效力可以約定附期限。附生效期限的合同,自期限屆至時生效。附終止期限的合同,自期限屆滿時失效。

  Article 46 Contract Term The parties may prescribe a term for a contract. A contract subject to a time of commencement becomes effective at such time. A contract subject to a time of expiration is extinguished at such time.

  第四十七條限制民事行為能力人訂立的合同,經法定代理人追認后,該合同有效,但純獲利益的合同或者與其年齡、智力、精神健康狀況相適應而訂立的合同,不必經法定代理人追認。

  Article 47 Contract by Person with Limited Capacity A contract concluded by a person with limited capacity for civil act is valid upon ratification by the legal agent thereof, provided that a contract from which such person accrues benefits only or the conclusion of which is appropriate for his age, intelligence or mental health does not require ratification by his legal agent.

  相對人可以催告法定代理人在一個月內予以追認。法定代理人未作表示的,視為拒絕追認。合同被追認之前,善意相對人有撤銷的權利。撤銷應當以通知的方式作出。

  The other party may demand that the legal agent ratify the contract within one month. If the legal agent fails to manifest his intention, he is deemed to have declined to ratify the contract. Prior to ratification of the contract, the other party in good faith is entitled to cancel the contract. Cancellation shall be effected by notification.

  第四十八條行為人沒有代理權、超越代理權或者代理權終止后以被代理人名義訂立的合同,未經被代理人追認,對被代理人不發生效力,由行為人承擔責任。

  Article 48 Contract by Unauthorized Agent Absent ratification by the principal, a contract concluded on his behalf by a person who lacked agency authority, who acted beyond his agency authority or whose agency authority was extinguished is not binding upon the principal unless ratified by him, and the person performing such act is liable.

  相對人可以催告被代理人在一個月內予以追認。被代理人未作表示的,視為拒絕追認。合同被追認之前,善意相對人有撤銷的權利。撤銷應當以通知的方式作出。

  The other party may demand that the principal ratify the contract within one month. Where the principal fails to manifest his intention, he is deemed to have declined to ratify the contract. Prior to ratification of the contract, the other party in good faith is entitled to cancel the contract. Cancellation shall be effected by notification.

  第四十九條行為人沒有代理權、超越代理權或者代理權終止后以被代理人名義訂立合同,相對人有理由相信行為人有代理權的,該代理行為有效。

  Article 49 Contract by Person with Apparent Agency Authority Where the person lacking agency authority, acting beyond his agency authority, or whose agency authority was extinguished concluded a contract in the name of the principal, if it was reasonable for the other party to believe that the person performing the act had agency authority, such act of agency is valid.

  第五十條法人或者其他組織的法定代表人、負責人超越權限訂立的合同,除相對人知道或者應當知道其超越權限的以外,該代表行為有效。

  Article 50 Contract Executed by Legal Representative Where the legal representative or the person-in-charge of a legal person or an organization of any other nature entered into a contract acting beyond his scope of authority, unless the other party knew or should have known that he was acting beyond his scope of authority, such act of representation is valid.

  第五十一條無處分權的人處分他人財產,經權利人追認或者無處分權的人訂立合同后取得處分權的,該合同有效。

  Article 51 Unauthorized Disposal of Property through Contract Where a piece of property belonging to another person was disposed of by a person without the power to do so, such contract is nevertheless valid once the person with the power to its disposal has ratified the contract, or if the person lacking the power to dispose of it when the contract was concluded has subsequently acquired such power.

  第五十二條有下列情形之一的,合同無效:

  Article 52 Invalidating Circumstances A contract is invalid in any of the following circumstances:

  (一)一方以欺詐、脅迫的手段訂立合同,損害國家利益;

  (i) One party induced conclusion of the contract through fraud or duress, thereby harming the interests of the state;

  (二)惡意串通,損害國家、集體或者第三人利益;

  (ii) The parties colluded in bad faith, thereby harming the interests of the state, the collective or any third party;

  (三)以合法形式掩蓋非法目的;

  (iii) The parties intended to conceal an illegal purpose under the guise of a legitimate transaction;

  (四)損害社會公共利益;

  (iv) The contract harms public interests;

  (五)違反法律、行政法規的強制性規定。

  (v) The contract violates a mandatory provision of any law or administrative regulation.

  第五十三條合同中的下列免責條款無效:

  Article 53 Invalidity of Certain Exculpatory Provisions The following exculpatory provisions in a contract are invalid:

  (一)造成對方人身傷害的;

  (i) excluding one party's liability for personal injury caused to the other party;

  (二)因故意或者重大過失造成對方財產損失的。

  (ii) excluding one party's liability for property loss caused to the other party by its intentional misconduct or gross negligence.

  第五十四條下列合同,當事人一方有權請求人民法院或者仲裁機構變更或者撤銷:

  Article 54 Contract Subject to Amendment or Cancellation Either of the parties may petition the People's Court or an arbitration institution for amendment or cancellation of a contract if:

  (一)因重大誤解訂立的;

  (i) the contract was concluded due to a material mistake;

  (二)在訂立合同時顯失公平的。

  (ii) the contract was grossly unconscionable at the time of its conclusion.

  一方以欺詐、脅迫的手段或者乘人之危,使對方在違背真實意思的情況下訂立的合同,受損害方有權請求人民法院或者仲裁機構變更或者撤銷。

  If a party induced the other party to enter into a contract against its true intention by fraud or duress, or by taking advantage of the other party's hardship, the aggrieved party is entitled to petition the People's Court or an arbitration institution for amendment or cancellation of the contract.

  當事人請求變更的,人民法院或者仲裁機構不得撤銷。

  Where a party petitions for amendment of the contract, the People's Court or arbitration institution may not cancel the contract instead.

  第五十五條有下列情形之一的,撤銷權消滅:

  Article 55 Extinguishment of Cancellation Right A party's cancellation right is extinguished in any of the following circumstances:

  (一)具有撤銷權的當事人自知道或者應當知道撤銷事由之日起一年內沒有行使撤銷權;

  (i) It fails to exercise the cancellation right within one year, commencing on the date when the party knew or should have known the cause for the cancellation;

  (二)具有撤銷權的當事人知道撤銷事由后明確表示或者以自己的行為放棄撤銷權。

  (ii) Upon becoming aware of the cause for cancellation, it waives the cancellation right by express statement or by conduct.

  第五十六條無效的合同或者被撤銷的合同自始沒有法律約束力。合同部分無效,不影響其他部分效力的,其他部分仍然有效。

  Article 56 Effect of Invalidation or Cancellation; Partial Invalidation or Cancellation An invalid or canceled contract is not legally binding ab initio. Where a contract is partially invalid, and the validity of the remaining provisions thereof is not affected as a result, the remaining provisions are nevertheless valid.

  第五十七條合同無效、被撤銷或者終止的,不影響合同中獨立存在的有關解決爭議方法的條款的效力。

  Article 57 Independence of Dispute Resolution Provision The invalidation, cancellation or discharge of a contract does not impair the validity of the contract provision concerning the method of dispute resolution, which exists independently in the contract.

  第五十八條合同無效或者被撤銷后,因該合同取得的財產,應當予以返還;不能返還或者沒有必要返還的,應當折價補償。有過錯的一方應當賠償對方因此所受到的損失,雙方都有過錯的,應當各自承擔相應的責任。

  Article 58 Remedies in Case of Invalidation or Cancellation After a contract was invalidated or canceled, the parties shall make restitution of any property acquired thereunder; where restitution in kind is not possible or necessary, allowance shall be made in money based on the value of the property. The party at fault shall indemnify the other party for its loss sustained as a result. Where both parties were at fault, the parties shall bear their respective liabilities accordingly.

  第五十九條當事人惡意串通,損害國家、集體或者第三人利益的,因此取得的財產收歸國家所有或者返還集體、第三人。

  Article 59 Remedies in Case of Collusion in Bad Faith Where the parties colluded in bad faith, thereby harming the interests of the state, the collective or a third person, any property acquired as a result shall be turned over to the state or be returned to the collective or the third person.

  第四章 合同的履行

  Chapter Four: Performance of Contracts

  第六十條當事人應當按照約定全面履行自己的義務。

  Article 60 Full Performance; Performance in Good Faith The parties shall fully perform their respective obligations in accordance with the contract.

  當事人應當遵循誠實信用原則,根據合同的性質、目的和交易習慣履行通知、協助、保密等義務。

  The parties shall abide by the principle of good faith, and perform obligations such as notification, assistance, and confidentiality, etc. in light of the nature and purpose of the contract and in accordance with the relevant usage.

  第六十一條合同生效后,當事人就質量、價款或者報酬、履行地點等內容沒有約定或者約定不明確的,可以協議補充;不能達成補充協議的,按照合同有關條款或者交易習慣確定。

  Article 61 Indeterminate Terms; Supplementary Agreement If a term such as quality, price or remuneration, or place of performance etc. was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, after the contract has taken effect, the parties may supplement it through agreement; if the parties fail to reach a supplementary agreement, such term shall be determined in accordance with the relevant provisions of the contract or in accordance with the relevant usage.

  第六十二條當事人就有關合同內容約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,適用下列規定:

  Article 62 Gap Filling Where a relevant term of the contract was not clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, one of the following provisions applies:

  (一)質量要求不明確的,按照國家標準、行業標準履行;沒有國家標準、行業標準的,按照通常標準或者符合合同目的的特定標準履行。

  (i) If quality requirement was not clearly prescribed, performance shall be in accordance with the state standard or industry standard; absent any state or industry standard, performance shall be in accordance with the customary standard or any particular standard consistent with the purpose of the contract;

  (二)價款或者報酬不明確的,按照訂立合同時履行地的市場價格履行;依法應當執行政府定價或者政府指導價的,按照規定履行。

  (ii) If price or remuneration was not clearly prescribed, performance shall be in accordance with the prevailing market price at the place of performance at the time the contract was concluded, and if adoption of a price mandated by the government or based on government issued pricing guidelines is required by law, such requirement applies;

  (三)履行地點不明確,給付貨幣的,在接受貨幣一方所在地履行;交付不動產的,在不動產所在地履行;其他標的,在履行義務一方所在地履行。

  (iii) Where the place of performance was not clearly prescribed, if the obligation is payment of money, performance shall be at the place where the payee is located; if the obligation is delivery of immovable property, performance shall be at the place where the immovable property is located; for any other subject matter, performance shall be at the place where the obligor is located;

  (四)履行期限不明確的,債務人可以隨時履行,債權人也可以隨時要求履行,但應當給對方必要的準備時間。

  (iv) If the time of performance was not clearly prescribed, the obligor may perform, and the obligee may require performance, at any time, provided that the other party shall be given the time required for preparation;

  (五)履行方式不明確的,按照有利于實現合同目的的方式履行。

  (v) If the method of performance was not clearly prescribed, performance shall be rendered in a manner which is conducive to realizing the purpose of the contract;

  (六)履行費用的負擔不明確的,由履行義務一方負擔。

  (vi) If the party responsible for the expenses of performance was not clearly prescribed, the obligor shall bear the expenses.

  第六十三條執行政府定價或者政府指導價的,在合同約定的交付期限內政府價格調整時,按照交付時的價格計價。逾期交付標的物的,遇價格上漲時,按照原價格執行;價格下降時,按照新價格執行。逾期提取標的物或者逾期付款的,遇價格上漲時,按照新價格執行;價格下降時,按照原價格執行。

  Article 63 Performance at Government Mandated Price Where a contract is to be implemented at a price mandated by the government or based on government issued pricing guidelines, if the government adjusts the price during the prescribed period of delivery, the contract price shall be the price at the time of delivery. Where a party delays in delivering the subject matter, the original price applies if the price has increased, and the new price applies if the price has decreased. Where a party delays in taking delivery or making payment, the new price applies if the price has increased, and the original price applies if the price has decreased.

  第六十四條當事人約定由債務人向第三人履行債務的,債務人未向第三人履行債務或者履行債務不符合約定,應當向債權人承擔違約責任。

  Article 64 Performance toward a Third Person Where the parties prescribed that the obligor render performance to a third person, if the obligor fails to render its performance to the third person, or rendered non-conforming performance, it shall be liable to the obligee for breach of contract.

  第六十五條當事人約定由第三人向債權人履行債務的,第三人不履行債務或者履行債務不符合約定,債務人應當向債權人承擔違約責任。

  Article 65 Performance by a Third Person Where the parties prescribed that a third person render performance to the obligee, if the third person fails to perform or rendered non-conforming performance, the obligor shall be liable to the obligee for breach of contract.

  第六十六條當事人互負債務,沒有先后履行順序的,應當同時履行。一方在對方履行之前有權拒絕其履行要求。一方在對方履行債務不符合約定時,有權拒絕其相應的履行要求。

  Article 66 Simultaneous Performance Where the parties owe performance toward each other and there is no order of performance, the parties shall perform simultaneously. Prior to performance by the other party, one party is entitled to reject its requirement for performance. If the other party rendered non-conforming performance, one party is entitled to reject its corresponding requirement for performance.

  第六十七條當事人互負債務,有先后履行順序,先履行一方未履行的,后履行一方有權拒絕其履行要求。先履行一方履行債務不符合約定的,后履行一方有權拒絕其相應的履行要求。

  Article 67 Consecutive Performance Where the parties owe performance toward each other and there is an order of performance, prior to performance by the party required to perform first, the party who is to perform subsequently is entitled to reject its requirement for performance. If the party required to perform first rendered non-conforming performance, the party who is to perform subsequently is entitled to reject its corresponding requirement for performance.

  第六十八條應當先履行債務的當事人,有確切證據證明對方有下列情形之一的,可以中止履行:

  Article 68 Right to Suspend Performance The party required to perform first may suspend its performance if it has conclusive evidence establishing that the other party is in any of the following circumstances:

  (一)經營狀況嚴重惡化;

  (i) Its business has seriously deteriorated;

  (二)轉移財產、抽逃資金,以逃避債務;

  (ii) It has engaged in transfer of assets or withdrawal of funds for the purpose of evading debts;

  (三)喪失商業信譽;

  (iii) It has lost its business creditworthiness;

  (四)有喪失或者可能喪失履行債務能力的其他情形。

  (iv) It is in any other circumstance which will or may cause it to lose its ability to perform.

  當事人沒有確切證據中止履行的,應當承擔違約責任。

  Where a party suspends performance without conclusive evidence, it shall be liable for breach of contract.

  第六十九條當事人依照本法第六十八條的規定中止履行的,應當及時通知對方。

  Article 69 Notification upon Suspension of Performance; Termination If a party suspends its performance in accordance with Article 68 hereof, it shall timely notify the other party.

  對方提供適當擔保時,應當恢復履行。中止履行后,對方在合理期限內未恢復履行能力并且未提供適當擔保的,中止履行的一方可以解除合同。

  If the other party provides appropriate assurance for its performance, the party shall resume performance. After performance was suspended, if the other party fails to regain its ability to perform and fails to provide appropriate assurance within a reasonable time, the suspending party may terminate the contract.

  第七十條債權人分立、合并或者變更住所沒有通知債務人,致使履行債務發生困難的,債務人可以中止履行或者將標的物提存。

  Article 70 Difficulty in Rendering Performance Due to Combination Where after effecting combination, division, or change of domicile, the obligee failed to notify the obligor, thereby making it difficult to render performance, the obligor may suspend its performance or place the subject matter in escrow.

  第七十一條債權人可以拒絕債務人提前履行債務,但提前履行不損害債權人利益的除外。

  Article 71 Right to Reject Early Performance; Exception The obligee may reject the obligor's early performance, except where such early performance does not harm the obligee's interests.

  債務人提前履行債務給債權人增加的費用,由債務人負擔。

  Any additional expense incurred by the obligee due to the obligor's early performance shall be borne by the obligor.

  第七十二條債權人可以拒絕債務人部分履行債務,但部分履行不損害債權人利益的除外。

  Article 72 Right to Reject Partial Performance; Exception An obligee may reject the obligor's partial performance, except where such partial performance does not harm the obligee's interests.

  債務人部分履行債務給債權人增加的費用,由債務人負擔。

  Any additional expense incurred by the obligee due to the obligor's partial performance shall be borne by the obligor.

  第七十三條因債務人怠于行使其到期債權,對債權人造成損害的,債權人可以向人民法院請求以自己的名義代位行使債務人的債權,但該債權專屬于債務人自身的除外。

  Article 73 Subrogation; Limitation Where the obligor delayed in exercising its creditor's right against a third person that was due, thereby harming the obligee, the obligee may petition the People's Court for subrogation, except where such creditor's right is exclusively personal to the obligor.

  代位權的行使范圍以債權人的債權為限。債權人行使代位權的必要費用,由債務人負擔。

  The scope of subrogation is limited to the extent of the obligee's right to performance. The necessary expenses for subrogation by the obligee shall be borne by the obligor.

  第七十四條因債務人放棄其到期債權或者無償轉讓財產,對債權人造成損害的,債權人可以請求人民法院撤銷債務人的行為。債務人以明顯不合理的低價轉讓財產,對債權人造成損害,并且受讓人知道該情形的,債權人也可以請求人民法院撤銷債務人的行為。

  Article 74 Obligee's Right to Cancel Manifestly Unreasonable Act by Obligor Where the obligor waived its creditor's right against a third person that was due or assigned its property without reward, thereby harming the obligee, the obligee may petition the People's Court for cancellation of the obligor's act. Where the obligor assigned its property at a low price which is manifestly unreasonable, thereby harming the obligee, and the assignee was aware of the situation, the obligee may also petition the People's Court for cancellation of the obligor's act.

  撤銷權的行使范圍以債權人的債權為限。債權人行使撤銷權的必要費用,由債務人負擔。

  The scope of cancellation right is limited to the extent of the obligee's right to performance. The necessary expenses for the obligee's exercise of its cancellation right shall be borne by the obligor.

  第七十五條撤銷權自債權人知道或者應當知道撤銷事由之日起一年內行使。自債務人的行為發生之日起五年內沒有行使撤銷權的,該撤銷權消滅。

  Article 75 Time Limit for Exercising Obligee's Cancellation Right The obligee's cancellation right shall be exercised within one year, commencing on the date when it became, or should have become, aware of the cause for cancellation. Such cancellation right is extinguished if not exercised within five years, commencing on the date of occurrence of the obligor's act.

  第七十六條合同生效后,當事人不得因姓名、名稱的變更或者法定代表人、負責人、承辦人的變動而不履行合同義務。

  Article 76 A Party's Internal Change Not Excuse for Nonperformance Once a contract becomes effective, a party may not refuse to perform its obligations thereunder on grounds of any change in its name or change of its legal representative, person in charge, or the person handling the contract.

  第五章 合同的變更和轉讓

  Chapter Five: Amendment and Assignment of Contracts

  第七十七條當事人協商一致,可以變更合同。

  Article 77 Amendment; Amendment Subject to Approval A contract may be amended if the parties have so agreed.

  法律、行政法規規定變更合同應當辦理批準、登記等手續的,依照其規定。

  Where amendment to the contract is subject to any procedure such as approval or registration, etc. as required by a relevant law or administrative regulation, such provision applies.

  第七十八條當事人對合同變更的內容約定不明確的,推定為未變更。

  Article 78 Ambiguous Amendment Not Effective A contract term is construed not to have been amended if the parties failed to clearly prescribe the terms of the amendment.

  第七十九條債權人可以將合同的權利全部或者部分轉讓給第三人,但有下列情形之一的除外:

  Article 79 Assignment of Rights; Exceptions The obligee may assign its rights under a contract in whole or in part to a third person, except where such assignment is prohibited:

  (一)根據合同性質不得轉讓;

  (i) in light of the nature of the contract;

  (二)按照當事人約定不得轉讓;

  (ii) by agreement between the parties;

  (三)依照法律規定不得轉讓。

  (iii) by law.

  第八十條債權人轉讓權利的,應當通知債務人。未經通知,該轉讓對債務人不發生效力。

  Article 80 Duty to Notify When Assigning Rights; Revocation of Assignment Subject to Assignee's Consent Where the obligee assigns its rights, it shall notify the obligor. Such assignment is not binding upon the obligor if notice was not given.

  債權人轉讓權利的通知不得撤銷,但經受讓人同意的除外。

  A notice of assignment of rights given by the obligee may not be revoked, except with the consent of the assignee.

  第八十一條債權人轉讓權利的,受讓人取得與債權有關的從權利,但該從權利專屬于債權人自身的除外。

  Article 81 Assumption of Incidental Right in Case of Assignment Where the obligee assigns a right, the assignee shall assume any incidental right associated with the obligee's right, except where such incidental right is exclusively personal to the obligee.

  第八十二條債務人接到債權轉讓通知后,債務人對讓與人的抗辯,可以向受讓人主張。

  Article 82 Assigned Rights Subject to Accrued Defenses of Obligor Upon receipt of the notice of assignment of the obligee's right, the obligor may, in respect of the assignee, avail itself of any defense it has against the assignor.

  第八十三條債務人接到債權轉讓通知時,債務人對讓與人享有債權,并且債務人的債權先于轉讓的債權到期或者同時到期的,債務人可以向受讓人主張抵銷。

  Article 83 Availability of Set-off to Obligor Upon receipt of the notice of assignment of the obligee's right, if the obligor has any right to performance by the assignor which is due before or at the same time as the assigned obligee's right, the obligor may avail itself of any set-off against the assignee.

  第八十四條債務人將合同的義務全部或者部分轉移給第三人的,應當經債權人同意。

  Article 84 Delegation of Obligations Subject to Consent by Obligee Where the obligor delegates its obligations under a contract in whole or in part to a third person, such delegation is subject to consent by the obligee.

  第八十五條債務人轉移義務的,新債務人可以主張原債務人對債權人的抗辯。

  Article 85 Availability of Defenses to New Obligor Where the obligor has delegated an obligation, the new obligor may avail itself of any of the original obligor's defenses against the obligee.

  第八十六條債務人轉移義務的,新債務人應當承擔與主債務有關的從債務,但該從債務專屬于原債務人自身的除外。

  Article 86 Assumption of Incidental Obligation in Case of Delegation Where the obligor delegates an obligation, the new obligor shall assume any incidental obligation associated with the main obligation, except where such incidental obligation is exclusively personal to the original obligor.

  第八十七條法律、行政法規規定轉讓權利或者轉移義務應當辦理批準、登記等手續的,依照其規定。

  Article 87 Assignment Subject to Approval Where the obligee's assignment of a right or the obligor's delegation of an obligation is subject to any procedure such as approval or registration, etc. as required by a relevant law or administrative regulation, such provision applies.

  第八十八條當事人一方經對方同意,可以將自己在合同中的權利和義務一并轉讓給第三人。

  Article 88 Concurrent Assignment and Delegation Upon consent by the other party, one party may concurrently assign its rights and delegate its obligations under a contract to a third person.

  第八十九條權利和義務一并轉讓的,適用本法第七十九條、第八十一條至第八十三條、第八十五條至第八十七條的規定。

  Article 89 Provisions Applicable to Concurrent Assignment Where a party concurrently assigns its rights and delegates its obligations, the provisions in Article 79, Articles 81 to 83, and Articles 85 to 87 apply.

  第九十條當事人訂立合同后合并的,由合并后的法人或者其他組織行使合同權利,履行合同義務。當事人訂立合同后分立的,除債權人和債務人另有約定的以外,由分立的法人或者其他組織對合同的權利和義務享有連帶債權,承擔連帶債務。

  Article 90 Effect of Combination or Division of Contract Party Where a party has effected combination after it entered into a contract, the legal person or organization of any other nature resulting from the combination assumes the rights and obligations thereunder. Where a party has effected division after it entered into a contract, unless otherwise agreed by the obligee and obligor thereunder, the legal persons or other organizations resulting from the division jointly and severally assume the rights and obligations thereunder.

  第六章 合同的權利義務終止

  Chapter Six: Discharge of Contractual Rights and Obligations

  第九十一條有下列情形之一的,合同的權利義務終止:

  Article 91 Conditions for Discharge The rights and obligations under a contract are discharged in any of the following circumstances:

  (一)債務已經按照約定履行;

  (i) The obligations were performed in accordance with the contract;

  (二)合同解除;

  (ii) The contract was terminated;

  (三)債務相互抵銷;

  (iii) The obligations were set off against each other;

  (四)債務人依法將標的物提存;

  (iv) The obligor placed the subject matter in escrow in accordance with the law;

  (五)債權人免除債務;

  (v) The obligee released the obligor from performance;

  (六)債權債務同歸于一人;

  (vi) Both the obligee's rights and obligor's obligations were assumed by one party;

  (七)法律規定或者當事人約定終止的其他情形。

  (vii) Any other discharging circumstance provided by law or prescribed by the parties occurred.

  第九十二條合同的權利義務終止后,當事人應當遵循誠實信用原則,根據交易習慣履行通知、協助、保密等義務。

  Article 92 Post-discharge Obligations Upon discharge of the rights and obligations under a contract, the parties shall abide by the principle of good faith and perform obligations such as notification, assistance and confidentiality, etc. in accordance with the relevant usage.

  第九十三條當事人協商一致,可以解除合同。

  Article 93 Termination by Agreement; Termination Right The parties may terminate a contract if they have so agreed.

  當事人可以約定一方解除合同的條件。解除合同的條件成就時,解除權人可以解除合同。

  The parties may prescribe a condition under which one party is entitled to terminate the contract. Upon satisfaction of the condition for termination of the contract, the party with the termination right may terminate the contract.

  第九十四條有下列情形之一的,當事人可以解除合同:

  Article 94 Legally Prescribed Conditions Giving Rise to Termination Right The parties may terminate a contract if:

  (一)因不可抗力致使不能實現合同目的;

  (i) force majeure frustrated the purpose of the contract;

  (二)在履行期限屆滿之前,當事人一方明確表示或者以自己的行為表明不履行主要債務;

  (ii) before the time of performance, the other party expressly stated or indicated by its conduct that it will not perform its main obligations;

  (三)當事人一方遲延履行主要債務,經催告后在合理期限內仍未履行;

  (iii) the other party delayed performance of its main obligations, and failed to perform within a reasonable time after receiving demand for performance;

  (四)當事人一方遲延履行債務或者有其他違約行為致使不能實現合同目的;

  (iv) the other party delayed performance or otherwise breached the contract, thereby frustrating the purpose of the contract;

  (五)法律規定的其他情形。

  (v) any other circumstance provided by law occurred.

  第九十五條法律規定或者當事人約定解除權行使期限,期限屆滿當事人不行使的,該權利消滅。

  Article 95 Time Limit for Termination; Extinguishment of Termination Right Where the law or the parties prescribe a period for exercising termination right, failure by a party to exercise it at the end of the period shall extinguish such right.

  法律沒有規定或者當事人沒有約定解除權行使期限,經對方催告后在合理期限內不行使的,該權利消滅。

  Where neither the law nor the parties prescribe a period for exercising termination right, failure by a party to exercise it within a reasonable time after receiving demand from the other party shall extinguish such right.

  第九十六條當事人一方依照本法第九十三條第二款、第九十四條的規定主張解除合同的,應當通知對方。合同自通知到達對方時解除。對方有異議的,可以請求人民法院或者仲裁機構確認解除合同的效力。

  Article 96 Termination by Notification; Termination Subject to Approval The party availing itself of termination of a contract in accordance with Paragraph 2 of Article 93 and Article 94 hereof shall notify the other party. The contract is terminated when the notice reaches the other party. If the other party objects to the termination, the terminating party may petition the People's Court or an arbitration institution to affirm the validity of the termination.

  法律、行政法規規定解除合同應當辦理批準、登記等手續的,依照其規定。

  Where termination of a contract is subject to any procedure such as approval or registration, etc. as required by a relevant law or administrative regulation, such provision applies.

  第九十七條合同解除后,尚未履行的,終止履行;已經履行的,根據履行情況和合同性質,當事人可以要求恢復原狀、采取其他補救措施,并有權要求賠償損失。

  Article 97 Remedies in Case of Termination Upon termination of a contract, a performance which has not been rendered is discharged; if a performance has been rendered, a party may, in light of the degree of performance and the nature of the contract, require the other party to restore the subject matter to its original condition or otherwise remedy the situation, and is entitled to claim damages.

  第九十八條合同的權利義務終止,不影響合同中結算和清理條款的效力。

  Article 98 Settlement and Winding-up Provisions Not Affected by Discharge Discharge of contractual rights and obligations does not affect the validity of contract provisions concerning settlement of account and winding-up.

  第九十九條當事人互負到期債務,該債務的標的物種類、品質相同的,任何一方可以將自己的債務與對方的債務抵銷,但依照法律規定或者按照合同性質不得抵銷的除外。

  Article 99 Set-off; Set-off Not Subject to Condition Where each party owes performance to the other party that is due, and the subject matters of the obligations are identical in type and quality, either party may set off its obligation against the obligation of the other party, except where set-off is prohibited by law or in light of the nature of the contract.

  當事人主張抵銷的,應當通知對方。通知自到達對方時生效。抵銷不得附條件或者附期限。

  The party availing itself of set-off shall notify the other party. The notice becomes effective when it reaches the other party. Set-off may not be subject to any condition or time limit.

  第一百條當事人互負債務,標的物種類、品質不相同的,經雙方協商一致,也可以抵銷。

  Article 100 Set-off Involving Non-identical Subject Matters Where each party owes performance to the other party that is due, and the subject matters of the obligations are not identical in type and quality, the parties may effect set-off by mutual agreement.

  第一百零一條有下列情形之一,難以履行債務的,債務人可以將標的物提存:

  Article 101 Conditions Giving Rise to Right to Place Subject Matter in Escrow Where any of the following circumstances makes it difficult to render performance, the obligor may place the subject matter in escrow:

  (一)債權人無正當理由拒絕受領;

  (i) The obligee refuses to take delivery of the subject matter without cause;

  (二)債權人下落不明;

  (ii) The obligee cannot be located;

  (三)債權人死亡未確定繼承人或者喪失民事行為能力未確定監護人;

  (iii) The obligee is deceased or incapacitated, and his heir or guardian is not determined;

  (四)法律規定的其他情形。

  (iv) Any other circumstance provided by law occurs.

  標的物不適于提存或者提存費用過高的,債務人依法可以拍賣或者變賣標的物,提存所得的價款。

  Where the subject matter is not fit for escrow, or the escrow expenses will be excessive, the obligor may auction or liquidate the subject matter and place the proceeds in escrow.

  第一百零二條標的物提存后,除債權人下落不明的以外,債務人應當及時通知債權人或者債權人的繼承人、監護人。

  Article 102 Duty to Notify in Case of Escrow After placing the subject matter in escrow, the obligor shall timely notify the obligee or his heir or guardian, except where the obligee cannot be located.

  第一百零三條標的物提存后,毀損、滅失的風險由債權人承擔。提存期間,標的物的孳息歸債權人所有。提存費用由債權人負擔。

  Article 103 Risk of Loss; Fruits of Subject Matter Accrued during Escrow Once the subject matter is in escrow, the risk of its damage or loss is borne by the obligee. The fruits of the subject matter accrued during escrow belong to the obligee. Escrow expenses shall be borne by the obligee.

  第一百零四條債權人可以隨時領取提存物,但債權人對債務人負有到期債務的,在債權人未履行債務或者提供擔保之前,提存部門根據債務人的要求應當拒絕其領取提存物。

  Article 104 Taking Delivery of Subject Matter in Escrow Conditional upon Performance; Time Limit The obligee may take delivery of the subject matter in escrow at any time, provided that if the obligee owes performance toward the obligor that is due, prior to the obligee's performance or provision of assurance, the escrow agent shall reject the obligee's attempt to take delivery of the subject matter in escrow as required by the obligor.

  債權人領取提存物的權利,自提存之日起五年內不行使而消滅,提存物扣除提存費用后歸國家所有。

  The right of the obligee to take delivery of the subject matter in escrow is extinguished if not exercised within five years, commencing on the date when the subject matter was placed in escrow. After deduction of escrow expenses, the subject matter in escrow shall be turned over to the state.

  第一百零五條債權人免除債務人部分或者全部債務的,合同的權利義務部分或者全部終止。

  Article 105 Release Where the obligee released the obligor from performance in part or in whole, the rights and obligations under the contract are discharged in part or in whole.

  第一百零六條債權和債務同歸于一人的,合同的權利義務終止,但涉及第三人利益的除外。

  Article 106 Merger of Rights and Obligations If the same party assumed all the rights and obligations under a contract, the rights and obligations thereunder are discharged, except where the contract involves the interests of a third person.

  第七章 違約責任

  Chapter Seven: Liabilities for Breach of Contracts

  第一百零七條當事人一方不履行合同義務或者履行合同義務不符合約定的,應當承擔繼續履行、采取補救措施或者賠償損失等違約責任。

  Article 107 Types of Liabilities for Breach If a party fails to perform its obligations under a contract, or rendered non-conforming performance, it shall bear the liabilities for breach of contract by specific performance, cure of non-conforming performance or payment of damages, etc.

  第一百零八條當事人一方明確表示或者以自己的行為表明不履行合同義務的,對方可以在履行期限屆滿之前要求其承擔違約責任。

  Article 108 Anticipatory Breach Where one party expressly states or indicates by its conduct that it will not perform its obligations under a contract, the other party may hold it liable for breach of contract before the time of performance.

  第一百零九條當事人一方未支付價款或者報酬的,對方可以要求其支付價款或者報酬。

  Article 109 Monetary Specific Performance If a party fails to pay the price or remuneration, the other party may require payment thereof.

  第一百一十條當事人一方不履行非金錢債務或者履行非金錢債務不符合約定的,對方可以要求履行,但有下列情形之一的除外:

  Article 110 Non-monetary Specific Performance; Exceptions Where a party fails to perform, or rendered non-conforming performance of, a non-monetary obligation, the other party may require performance, except where:

  (一)法律上或者事實上不能履行;

  (i) performance is impossible in law or in fact;

  (二)債務的標的不適于強制履行或者履行費用過高;

  (ii) the subject matter of the obligation does not lend itself to enforcement by specific performance or the cost of performance is excessive;

  (三)債權人在合理期限內未要求履行。

  (iii) the obligee does not require performance within a reasonable time.

  第一百一十一條質量不符合約定的,應當按照當事人的約定承擔違約責任。對違約責任沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,受損害方根據標的的性質以及損失的大小,可以合理選擇要求對方承擔修理、更換、重作、退貨、減少價款或者報酬等違約責任。

  Article 111 Liabilities in Case of Quality Non-compliance Where a performance does not meet the prescribed quality requirements, the breaching party shall be liable for breach in accordance with the contract. Where the liabilities for breach were not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, the aggrieved party may, by reasonable election in light of the nature of the subject matter and the degree of loss, require the other party to assume liabilities for breach by way of repair, replacement, remaking, acceptance of returned goods, or reduction in price or remuneration, etc.

  第一百一十二條當事人一方不履行合同義務或者履行合同義務不符合約定的,在履行義務或者采取補救措施后,對方還有其他損失的,應當賠償損失。

  Article 112 Liability for Damages Notwithstanding Subsequent Performance or Cure of Non-conforming Performance Where a party failed to perform or rendered non-conforming performance, if notwithstanding its subsequent performance or cure of non-conforming performance, the other party has sustained other loss, the breaching party shall pay damages.

  第一百一十三條當事人一方不履行合同義務或者履行合同義務不符合約定,給對方造成損失的,損失賠償額應當相當于因違約所造成的損失,包括合同履行后可以獲得的利益,但不得超過違反合同一方訂立合同時預見到或者應當預見到的因違反合同可能造成的損失。

  Article 113 Calculation of Damages; Damages to Consumer Where a party failed to perform or rendered non-conforming performance, thereby causing loss to the other party, the amount of damages payable shall be equivalent to the other party's loss resulting from the breach, including any benefit that may be accrued from performance of the contract, provided that the amount shall not exceed the likely loss resulting from the breach which was foreseen or should have been foreseen by the breaching party at the time of conclusion of the contract.

  經營者對消費者提供商品或者服務有欺詐行為的,依照《中華人民共和國消費者權益保護法》的規定承擔損害賠償責任。

  Where a merchant engages in any fraudulent activity while supplying goods or services to a consumer, it is liable for damages in accordance with the Law of the People's Republic of China on Protection of Consumer Rights.

  第一百一十四條當事人可以約定一方違約時應當根據違約情況向對方支付一定數額的違約金,也可以約定因違約產生的損失賠償額的計算方法。

  Article 114 Liquidated Damages; Adjustment; Continuing Performance Notwithstanding Payment of Liquidated Damages The parties may prescribe that if one party breaches the contract, it will pay a certain sum of liquidated damages to the other party in light of the degree of breach, or prescribe a method for calculation of damages for the loss resulting from a party's breach.

  約定的違約金低于造成的損失的,當事人可以請求人民法院或者仲裁機構予以增加;約定的違約金過分高于造成的損失的,當事人可以請求人民法院或者仲裁機構予以適當減少。

  Where the amount of liquidated damages prescribed is below the loss resulting from the breach, a party may petition the People's Court or an arbitration institution to increase the amount; where the amount of liquidated damages prescribed exceeds the loss resulting from the breach, a party may petition the People's Court or an arbitration institution to decrease the amount as appropriate.

  當事人就遲延履行約定違約金的,違約方支付違約金后,還應當履行債務。

  Where the parties prescribed liquidated damages for delayed performance, the breaching party shall, in addition to payment of the liquidated damages, render performance.

  第一百一十五條當事人可以依照《中華人民共和國擔保法》約定一方向對方給付定金作為債權的擔保。債務人履行債務后,定金應當抵作價款或者收回。給付定金的一方不履行約定的債務的,無權要求返還定金;收受定金的一方不履行約定的債務的,應當雙倍返還定金。

  Article 115 Deposit The parties may prescribe that a party will give a deposit to the other party as assurance for the obligee's right to performance in accordance with the Security Law of the People's Republic of China. Upon performance by the obligor, the deposit shall be set off against the price or refunded to the obligor. If the party giving the deposit failed to perform its obligations under the contract, it is not entitled to claim refund of the deposit; where the party receiving the deposit failed to perform its obligations under the contract, it shall return to the other party twice the amount of the deposit.

  第一百一十六條當事人既約定違約金,又約定定金的,一方違約時,對方可以選擇適用違約金或者定金條款。

  Article 116 Election Between Deposit or Liquidated Damages Clauses If the parties prescribed payment of both liquidated damages and a deposit, in case of breach by a party, the other party may elect in alternative to apply the liquidated damages clause or the deposit clause.

  第一百一十七條因不可抗力不能履行合同的,根據不可抗力的影響,部分或者全部免除責任,但法律另有規定的除外。當事人遲延履行后發生不可抗力的,不能免除責任。

  Article 117 Force Majeure A party who was unable to perform a contract due to force majeure is exempted from liability in part or in whole in light of the impact of the event of force majeure, except otherwise provided by law. Where an event of force majeure occurred after the party's delay in performance, it is not exempted from liability.

  本法所稱不可抗力,是指不能預見、不能避免并不能克服的客觀情況。

  For purposes of this Law, force majeure means any objective circumstance which is unforeseeable, unavoidable and insurmountable.

  第一百一十八條當事人一方因不可抗力不能履行合同的,應當及時通知對方,以減輕可能給對方造成的損失,并應當在合理期限內提供證明。

  Article 118 Duty to Notify in Case of Force Majeure If a party is unable to perform a contract due to force majeure, it shall timely notify the other party so as to mitigate the loss that may be caused to the other party, and shall provide proof of force majeure within a reasonable time.

  第一百一十九條當事人一方違約后,對方應當采取適當措施防止損失的擴大;沒有采取適當措施致使損失擴大的,不得就擴大的損失要求賠償。

  Article 119 Non-Breaching Party's Duty to Mitigate Loss in Case of Breach Where a party breached the contract, the other party shall take the appropriate measures to prevent further loss; where the other party sustained further loss due to its failure to take the appropriate measures, it may not claim damages for such further loss.

  當事人因防止損失擴大而支出的合理費用,由違約方承擔。

  Any reasonable expense incurred by the other party in preventing further loss shall be borne by the breaching party.

  第一百二十條當事人雙方都違反合同的,應當各自承擔相應的責任。

  Article 120 Bilateral Breach In case of bilateral breach, the parties shall assume their respective liabilities accordingly.

  第一百二十一條當事人一方因第三人的原因造成違約的,應當向對方承擔違約責任。當事人一方和第三人之間的糾紛,依照法律規定或者按照約定解決。

  Article 121 Breach Due to Act of Third Person Where a party's breach was attributable to a third person, it shall nevertheless be liable to the other party for breach. Any dispute between the party and such third person shall be resolved in accordance with the law or the agreement between the parties.

  第一百二十二條因當事人一方的違約行為,侵害對方人身、財產權益的,受損害方有權選擇依照本法要求其承擔違約責任或者依照其他法律要求其承擔侵權責任。

  Article 122 Election of Remedy in Tort or in Contract Where a party's breach harmed the personal or property interests of the other party, the aggrieved party is entitled to elect to hold the party liable for breach of contract in accordance herewith, or hold the party liable for tort in accordance with any other relevant law.

  第八章 其他規定

  Chapter Eight: Other Provisions

  第一百二十三條其他法律對合同另有規定的,依照其規定。

  Article 123 Applicability of Other Laws Where another law provides otherwise in respect of a certain contract, such provisions prevail.

  第一百二十四條本法分則或者其他法律沒有明文規定的合同,適用本法總則的規定,并可以參照本法分則或者其他法律最相類似的規定。

  Article 124 Applicability to Non-categorized Contracts Where there is no express provision in the Specific Provisions hereof or any other law concerning a certain contract, the provisions in the General Principles hereof apply, and reference may be made to the provisions in the Specific Provisions hereof or any other law applicable to a contract which is most similar to such contract.

  第一百二十五條當事人對合同條款的理解有爭議的,應當按照合同所使用的詞句、合同的有關條款、合同的目的、交易習慣以及誠實信用原則,確定該條款的真實意思。

  Article 125 Contract Interpretation; Language Versions In case of any dispute between the parties concerning the construction of a contract term, the true meaning thereof shall be determined according to the words and sentences used in the contract, the relevant provisions and the purpose of the contract, and in accordance with the relevant usage and the principle of good faith.

  合同文本采用兩種以上文字訂立并約定具有同等效力的,對各文本使用的詞句推定具有相同含義。各文本使用的詞句不一致的,應當根據合同的目的予以解釋。

  Where a contract was executed in two or more languages and it provides that all versions are equally authentic, the words and sentences in each version are construed to have the same meaning. In case of any discrepancy in the words or sentences used in the different language versions, they shall be interpreted in light of the purpose of the contract.

  第一百二十六條涉外合同的當事人可以選擇處理合同爭議所適用的法律,但法律另有規定的除外。涉外合同的當事人沒有選擇的,適用與合同有最密切聯系的國家的法律。

  Article 126 Choice of Law in Foreign-related Contracts; Contracts Subject to Mandatory Application of Chinese Law Parties to a foreign related contract may select the applicable law for resolution of a contractual dispute, except otherwise provided by law. Where parties to the foreign related contract failed to select the applicable law, the contract shall be governed by the law of the country with the closest connection thereto.

  在中華人民共和國境內履行的中外合資經營企業合同、中外合作經營企業合同、中外合作勘探開發自然資源合同,適用中華人民共和國法律。

  For a Sino-foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Contract, Sino-foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Contract, or a Contract for Sino-foreign Joint Exploration and Development of Natural Resources which is performed within the territory of the People's Republic of China, the law of the People's Republic of China applies.

  第一百二十七條工商行政管理部門和其他有關行政主管部門在各自的職權范圍內,依照法律、行政法規的規定,對利用合同危害國家利益、社會公共利益的違法行為,負責監督處理;構成犯罪的,依法追究刑事責任。

  Article 127 Role of Regulatory Authorities Within the scope of their respective duties, the authority for the administration of industry and commerce and other relevant authorities shall, in accordance with the relevant laws and administrative regulations, be responsible for monitoring and dealing with any illegal act which, through the conclusion of a contract, harms the state interests or the public interests; where such act constitutes a crime, criminal liability shall be imposed in accordance with the law.

  第一百二十八條當事人可以通過和解或者調解解決合同爭議。

  Article 128 Dispute Resolution The parties may resolve a contractual dispute through settlement or mediation.

  當事人不愿和解、調解或者和解、調解不成的,可以根據仲裁協議向仲裁機構申請仲裁。涉外合同的當事人可以根據仲裁協議向中國仲裁機構或者其他仲裁機構申請仲裁。當事人沒有訂立仲裁協議或者仲裁協議無效的,可以向人民法院起訴。當事人應當履行發生法律效力的判決、仲裁裁決、調解書;拒不履行的,對方可以請求人民法院執行。

  Where the parties do not wish to, or are unable to, resolve such dispute through settlement or mediation, the dispute may be submitted to the relevant arbitration institution for arbitration in accordance with the arbitration agreement between the parties. Parties to a foreign related contract may apply to a Chinese arbitration institution or another arbitration institution for arbitration. Where the parties did not conclude an arbitration agreement, or the arbitration agreement is invalid, either party may bring a suit to the People's Court. The parties shall perform any judgment, arbitral award or mediation agreement which has taken legal effect; if a party refuses to perform, the other party may apply to the People's Court for enforcement.

  第一百二十九條因國際貨物買賣合同和技術進出口合同爭議提起訴訟或者申請仲裁的期限為四年,自當事人知道或者應當知道其權利受到侵害之日起計算。因其他合同爭議提起訴訟或者申請仲裁的期限,依照有關法律的規定。

  Article 129 Time Limit for Action For a dispute arising from a contract for the international sale of goods or a technology import or export contract, the time limit for bringing a suit or applying for arbitration is four years, commencing on the date when the party knew or should have known that its rights were harmed. For a dispute arising from any other type of contract, the time limit for bringing a suit or applying for arbitration shall be governed by the relevant law.

  分則

  SPECIFIC PROVISIONS

  第九章 買賣合同

  Chapter Nine: Sales Contracts

  第一百三十條買賣合同是出賣人轉移標的物的所有權于買受人,買受人支付價款的合同。

  Article 130 Definition of Sales Contract A sales contract is a contract whereby the seller transfers title to the subject matter to the buyer, who pays the price.

  第一百三十一條買賣合同的內容除依照本法第十二條的規定以外,還可以包括包裝方式、檢驗標準和方法、結算方式、合同使用的文字及其效力等條款。

  Article 131 Additional Terms In addition to the terms set forth in Article 12 hereof, a sales contract may include terms such as packing method, inspection standard and inspection method, method of settlement of account, and the language versions of the contract and the authenticity thereof, etc.

  第一百三十二條出賣的標的物,應當屬于出賣人所有或者出賣人有權處分。

  Article 132 Title or Disposal Power; Prohibition of or Restriction on Transfer The seller shall have title to, or the power to dispose of, the subject matter for sale.

  法律、行政法規禁止或者限制轉讓的標的物,依照其規定。

  Where a law or administrative regulation prohibits or restricts the transfer of the subject matter, such provision applies.

  第一百三十三條標的物的所有權自標的物交付時起轉移,但法律另有規定或者當事人另有約定的除外。

  Article 133 Passing of Title Title to the subject matter passes at the time of its delivery, except otherwise provided by law or agreed by the parties.

  第一百三十四條當事人可以在買賣合同中約定買受人未履行支付價款或者其他義務的,標的物的所有權屬于出賣人。

  Article 134 Conditional Sale The parties may prescribe in the sales contract that title to the subject matter remain in the seller until the buyer has paid the price or has performed other obligations.

  第一百三十五條出賣人應當履行向買受人交付標的物或者交付提取標的物的單證,并轉移標的物所有權的義務。

  Article 135 Seller's Obligations with Respect to Title Transfer The seller shall perform the obligations of delivering to the buyer the subject matter or the document for taking delivery thereof, as well as transferring title to the subject matter.

  第一百三十六條出賣人應當按照約定或者交易習慣向買受人交付提取標的物單證以外的有關單證和資料。

  Article 136 Delivery of Related Materials by Seller In addition to the document for taking delivery, the seller shall deliver to the buyer documents and materials related to the subject matter in accordance with the contract or in accordance with the relevant usage.

  第一百三十七條出賣具有知識產權的計算機軟件等標的物的,除法律另有規定或者當事人另有約定的以外,該標的物的知識產權不屬于買受人。

  Article 137 Sales Involving Intellectual Property In a sale of any subject matter which contains intellectual property such as computer software, etc., the intellectual property in the subject matter does not vest in the buyer, except otherwise provided by law or agreed by the parties.

  第一百三十八條出賣人應當按照約定的期限交付標的物。約定交付期間的,出賣人可以在該交付期間內的任何時間交付。

  Article 138 Time of Delivery The seller shall deliver the subject matter at the prescribed time. Where the contract prescribes a period during which delivery is to take place, the seller may deliver at any time during the delivery period.

  第一百三十九條當事人沒有約定標的物的交付期限或者約定不明確的,適用本法第六十一條、第六十二條第四項的規定。

  Article 139 Absence of Provision for Time of Delivery Where the time for delivery of the subject matter was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, Article 61 and Item 4 of Article 62 apply.

  第一百四十條標的物在訂立合同之前已為買受人占有的,合同生效的時間為交付時間。

  Article 140 Time of Delivery of Subject Matter Already in Buyer's Possession Where the subject matter was in buyer's possession prior to conclusion of the contract, the time when the contract becomes effective is the time of delivery.

  第一百四十一條出賣人應當按照約定的地點交付標的物。

  Article 141 Absence of Provision for Place of Delivery The seller shall deliver the subject matter at the prescribed place.

  當事人沒有約定交付地點或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,適用下列規定:

  Where the place of delivery was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, the following provisions apply:

  (一)標的物需要運輸的,出賣人應當將標的物交付給第一承運人以運交給買受人;

  (i) If the subject matter needs carriage, the seller shall deliver the subject matter to the first carrier for transmission to the buyer;

  (二)標的物不需要運輸,出賣人和買受人訂立合同時知道標的物在某一地點的,出賣人應當在該地點交付標的物;不知道標的物在某一地點的,應當在出賣人訂立合同時的營業地交付標的物。

  (ii) Where the subject matter does not need carriage, if at the time of conclusion of the contract, the buyer and the seller knew the subject matter was at a particular place, the seller shall deliver the subject matter at such place; and if they did not know the location of the subject matter, delivery shall take place at the seller's place of business at the time of conclusion of the contract.

  第一百四十二條標的物毀損、滅失的風險,在標的物交付之前由出賣人承擔,交付之后由買受人承擔,但法律另有規定或者當事人另有約定的除外。

  Article 142 Passing of Risk The risk of damage to or loss of the subject matter is borne by the seller prior to delivery, and by the buyer after delivery, except otherwise provided by law or agreed by the parties.

  第一百四十三條因買受人的原因致使標的物不能按照約定的期限交付的,買受人應當自違反約定之日起承擔標的物毀損、滅失的風險。

  Article 143 Risk Allocation in Case of Delayed Delivery Where the subject matter was not delivered at the prescribed time due to any reason attributable to the buyer, the buyer shall bear the risk of damage to or loss of the subject matter as from the date of breach.

  第一百四十四條出賣人出賣交由承運人運輸的在途標的物,除當事人另有約定的以外,毀損、滅失的風險自合同成立時起由買受人承擔。

  Article 144 Risk Allocation for Subject Matter in Transit Where the seller sells the subject matter which has been delivered to a carrier for transportation and is in transit, unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the risk of damage or loss is borne by the buyer as from the time of formation of the contract.

  第一百四十五條當事人沒有約定交付地點或者約定不明確,依照本法第一百四十一條第二款第一項的規定標的物需要運輸的,出賣人將標的物交付給第一承運人后,標的物毀損、滅失的風險由買受人承擔。

  Article 145 Passing of Risk in Case of Seller Arranged Carriage Where the place of delivery was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, if the subject matter needs carriage as provided in Item (i) of Paragraph 2 of Article 141, the risk of damage to or loss of the subject matter is borne by the buyer as from the time the seller delivers the subject matter to the first carrier.

  第一百四十六條出賣人按照約定或者依照本法第一百四十一條第二款第二項的規定將標的物置于交付地點,買受人違反約定沒有收取的,標的物毀損、滅失的風險自違反約定之日起由買受人承擔。

  Article 146 Risk Allocation in Case of Delay in Taking Delivery Where the seller placed the subject matter at the place of delivery in accordance with the contract or in accordance with Item (ii) of Paragraph 2 of Article 141 hereof and the buyer fails to take delivery in breach of the contract, the risk of damage to or loss of the subject matter is borne by the buyer as from the date of breach.

  第一百四十七條出賣人按照約定未交付有關標的物的單證和資料的,不影響標的物毀損、滅失風險的轉移。

  Article 147 Passing of Risk Notwithstanding Failure to Deliver Documents Failure by the seller to deliver the documents and materials relating to the subject matter in accordance with the contract does not affect passing of the risk of damage to or loss of the subject matter.

  第一百四十八條因標的物質量不符合質量要求,致使不能實現合同目的的,買受人可以拒絕接受標的物或者解除合同。買受人拒絕接受標的物或者解除合同的,標的物毀損、滅失的風險由出賣人承擔。

  Article 148 Rejection on Grounds of Quality Non-compliance; Risk Allocation in Case of Rejection Where the purpose of the contract is frustrated due to failure of the subject matter to meet the quality requirements, the buyer may reject the subject matter or terminate the contract. If the buyer rejects the subject matter or terminates the contract, the risk of damage to or loss of the subject matter is borne by the seller.

  第一百四十九條標的物毀損、滅失的風險由買受人承擔的,不影響因出賣人履行債務不符合約定,買受人要求其承擔違約責任的權利。

  Article 149 Right to Remedy Notwithstanding Assumption of Risk Buyer's assumption of the risk of damage to or loss of the subject matter does not prejudice its right to hold the seller liable for breach of contract if the seller rendered non-conforming performance.

  第一百五十條出賣人就交付的標的物,負有保證第三人不得向買受人主張任何權利的義務,但法律另有規定的除外。

  Article 150 Third Party Claim Warranty The seller is obligated to warrant that the buyer will be free from any third party claim against it in respect of the subject matter delivered, except otherwise provided by law.

  第一百五十一條買受人訂立合同時知道或者應當知道第三人對買賣的標的物享有權利的,出賣人不承擔本法第一百五十條規定的義務。

  Article 151 Buyer's Knowledge Releasing Third Party Claim Warranty Where the buyer knew or should have known that the subject matter was subject to a third party claim at the time of conclusion of the contract, the seller does not assume the obligation prescribed in Article 150 hereof.

  第一百五十二條買受人有確切證據證明第三人可能就標的物主張權利的,可以中止支付相應的價款,但出賣人提供適當擔保的除外。

  Article 152 Right to Withhold Payment in Case of Third Party Claim Where the buyer has conclusive evidence establishing that a third person may make a claim on the subject matter, it may withhold payment of the corresponding price, except where the seller has provided appropriate assurance.

  第一百五十三條出賣人應當按照約定的質量要求交付標的物。出賣人提供有關標的物質量說明的,交付的標的物應當符合該說明的質量要求。

  Article 153 Quality Specifications The seller shall deliver the subject matter in compliance with the prescribed quality requirements. Where the seller gave quality specifications for the subject matter, the subject matter delivered shall comply with the quality requirements set forth therein.

  第一百五十四條當事人對標的物的質量要求沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,適用本法第六十二條第一項的規定。

  Article 154 Absence of Prescribed Quality Requirements Where the quality requirements for the subject matter were not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, Item (i) of Article 62 hereof applies.

  第一百五十五條出賣人交付的標的物不符合質量要求的,買受人可以依照本法第一百一十一條的規定要求承擔違約責任。

  Article 155 Quality Non-compliance Giving Rise to Claims If the subject matter delivered by the seller fails to comply with the quality requirements, the buyer may hold the seller liable for breach of contract in accordance with Article 111 hereof.

  第一百五十六條出賣人應當按照約定的包裝方式交付標的物。對包裝方式沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,應當按照通用的方式包裝,沒有通用方式的,應當采取足以保護標的物的包裝方式。

  Article 156 Packing Method The seller shall deliver the subject matter packed in the prescribed manner. Where a packing method was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, the subject matter shall be packed in a customary manner, or, if there is no customary manner, in a manner adequate to protect the subject matter.

  第一百五十七條買受人收到標的物時應當在約定的檢驗期間內檢驗。沒有約定檢驗期間的,應當及時檢驗。

  Article 157 Inspection upon Receipt of Subject Matter Upon receipt of the subject matter, the buyer shall inspect it within the prescribed inspection period. Where no inspection period was prescribed, the buyer shall timely inspect the subject matter.

  第一百五十八條當事人約定檢驗期間的,買受人應當在檢驗期間內將標的物的數量或者質量不符合約定的情形通知出賣人。買受人怠于通知的,視為標的物的數量或者質量符合約定。

  Article 158 Consequence of Failure to Inspect; Exceptions Where an inspection period was prescribed, the buyer shall notify the seller of any non-compliance in quantity or quality of the subject matter within such inspection period. Where the buyer delayed in notifying the seller, the quantity or quality of the subject matter is deemed to comply with the contract.

  當事人沒有約定檢驗期間的,買受人應當在發現或者應當發現標的物的數量或者質量不符合約定的合理期間內通知出賣人。買受人在合理期間內未通知或者自標的物收到之日起兩年內未通知出賣人的,視為標的物的數量或者質量符合約定,但對標的物有質量保證期的,適用質量保證期,不適用該兩年的規定。

  Where no inspection period was prescribed, the buyer shall notify the seller within a reasonable period, commencing on the date when the buyer discovered or should have discovered the quantity or quality non-compliance. If the buyer fails to notify within a reasonable period or fails to notify within 2 years, commencing on the date when it received the subject matter, the quantity or quality of the subject matter is deemed to comply with the contract, except that if there is a warranty period in respect of the subject matter, the warranty period applies and supersedes such two year period.

  出賣人知道或者應當知道提供的標的物不符合約定的,買受人不受前兩款規定的通知時間的限制。

  Where the seller knew or should have known the non-compliance of the subject matter, the buyer is not subject to the time limits for notification prescribed in the previous two paragraphs.

  第一百五十九條買受人應當按照約定的數額支付價款。對價款沒有約定或者約定不明確的,適用本法第六十一條、第六十二條第二項的規定。

  Article 159 Absence of Price Provision The buyer shall pay the price in the prescribed amount. Where the price was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, the provisions of Article 61 and Item (ii) of Article 62 apply.

  第一百六十條買受人應當按照約定的地點支付價款。對支付地點沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,買受人應當在出賣人的營業地支付,但約定支付價款以交付標的物或者交付提取標的物單證為條件的,在交付標的物或者交付提取標的物單證的所在地支付。

  Article 160 Place of Payment The buyer shall pay the price at the prescribed place. Where the place of payment was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, the buyer shall make payment at the seller's place of business, provided that if the parties agreed that payment shall be conditional upon delivery of the subject matter or the document for taking delivery thereof, payment shall be made at the place where the subject matter, or the document for taking delivery thereof, is delivered.

  第一百六十一條買受人應當按照約定的時間支付價款。對支付時間沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,買受人應當在收到標的物或者提取標的物單證的同時支付。

  Article 161 Time of Payment The buyer shall pay the price at the prescribed time. Where the time for payment was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, the buyer shall make payment at the same time it receives the subject matter or the document for taking delivery thereof.

  第一百六十二條出賣人多交標的物的,買受人可以接收或者拒絕接收多交的部分。買受人接收多交部分的,按照合同的價格支付價款;買受人拒絕接收多交部分的,應當及時通知出賣人。

  Article 162 Buyer's Option in Case Delivered Quantity Exceeds Prescribed Amount Where the seller delivered the subject matter in a quantity greater than that prescribed in the contract, the buyer may accept or reject the excess quantity. Where the buyer accepts the excess quantity, it shall pay the price based on the contract rate; where the buyer rejects the excess quantity, it shall timely notify the seller.

  第一百六十三條標的物在交付之前產生的孳息,歸出賣人所有,交付之后產生的孳息,歸買受人所有。

  Article 163 Title to Fruits Before and After Delivery The fruits of the subject matter belong to the seller if accrued before delivery, and to the buyer if accrued after delivery.

  第一百六十四條因標的物的主物不符合約定而解除合同的,解除合同的效力及于從物。因標的物的從物不符合約定被解除的,解除的效力不及于主物。

  Article 164 Effect of Termination on Grounds of Non-compliance of Main or Ancillary Components Where a contract is terminated due to non-compliance of any main component of the subject matter, the effect of termination extends to the ancillary components. Where the contract is terminated due to non-compliance of any ancillary component of the subject matter, the effect of termination does not extend to the main components.

  第一百六十五條標的物為數物,其中一物不符合約定的,買受人可以就該物解除,但該物與他物分離使標的物的價值顯受損害的,當事人可以就數物解除合同。

  Article 165 Termination in Part or in Whole Where the subject matter comprises of a number of components, one of which does not comply with the contract, the buyer may terminate the portion of the contract in respect of such component, provided that if severance of such component with the other components will significantly diminish the value of the subject matter, the party may terminate the contract in respect of such number of components.

  第一百六十六條出賣人分批交付標的物的,出賣人對其中一批標的物不交付或者交付不符合約定,致使該批標的物不能實現合同目的的,買受人可以就該批標的物解除。

  Article 166 Effect of Termination in Case of Delivery in Installments Where the seller is to deliver the subject matter in installments, if the seller's failure to deliver or non-conforming delivery of one installment frustrates the purpose of the contract in respect of such installment, the buyer may terminate the portion of the contract in respect thereof.

  出賣人不交付其中一批標的物或者交付不符合約定,致使今后其他各批標的物的交付不能實現合同目的的,買受人可以就該批以及今后其他各批標的物解除。

  If the seller's failure to deliver or non-conforming delivery of one installment frustrates the purpose of the contract in respect of all subsequent installments notwithstanding their delivery, the buyer may terminate the portion of the contract in respect of such installment as well as any subsequent installment.

  買受人如果就其中一批標的物解除,該批標的物與其他各批標的物相互依存的,可以就已經交付和未交付的各批標的物解除。

  If the buyer is to terminate the portion of the contract in respect of a particular installment which is interdependent with all other installments, it may terminate the contract in respect of all delivered and undelivered installments.

  第一百六十七條分期付款的買受人未支付到期價款的金額達到全部價款的五分之一的,出賣人可以要求買受人支付全部價款或者解除合同。出賣人解除合同的,可以向買受人要求支付該標的物的使用費。

  Article 167 Termination in Case of Sale by Installment Payment In a sale by installment payment, where the buyer failed to make payments as they became due, if the delinquent amount has reached one fifth of the total price, the seller may require payment of the full price from the buyer or terminate the contract. If the seller terminates the contract, it may require the buyer to pay a fee for its use of the subject matter.

  第一百六十八條憑樣品買賣的當事人應當封存樣品,并可以對樣品質量予以說明。出賣人交付的標的物應當與樣品及其說明的質量相同。

  Article 168 Quality Provisions in Case of Sale by Sample In a sale by sample, the parties shall place the sample under seal, and may specify the quality of the sample. The subject matter delivered by the seller shall comply with the sample as well as the quality specifications.

  第一百六十九條憑樣品買賣的買受人不知道樣品有隱蔽瑕疵的,即使交付的標的物與樣品相同,出賣人交付的標的物的質量仍然應當符合同種物的通常標準。

  Article 169 Latent Defect in Sample In a sale by sample, if the buyer was not aware of a latent defect in the sample, the subject matter delivered by the seller shall nevertheless comply with the normal quality standard for a like item, even though the subject matter delivered complies with the sample.

  第一百七十條試用買賣的當事人可以約定標的物的試用期間。對試用期間沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,由出賣人確定。

  Article 170 Sale by Trial In a sale by trial, the parties may prescribe the trial period. Where a trial period was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, it shall be determined by the seller.

  第一百七十一條試用買賣的買受人在試用期內可以購買標的物,也可以拒絕購買。試用期間屆滿,買受人對是否購買標的物未作表示的,視為購買。

  Article 171 Purchase or Rejection During Trial Period In a sale by trial, the buyer may either purchase or reject the subject matter during the trial period. At the end of the trial period, the buyer is deemed to have made the purchase if it fails to manifest its intention to purchase or reject the subject matter.

  第一百七十二條招標投標買賣的當事人的權利和義務以及招標投標程序等,依照有關法律、行政法規的規定。

  Article 172 Sale by Tender Governed by Relevant Laws In a sale by tender, matters such as the rights and obligations of the parties and the tendering procedure, etc. are governed by the relevant laws and administrative regulations.

  第一百七十三條拍賣的當事人的權利和義務以及拍賣程序等,依照有關法律、行政法規的規定。

  Article 173 Sale by Auction Governed by Relevant Laws In a sale by auction, matters such as the rights and obligations of the parties and the auctioning procedure, etc. are governed by the relevant laws and administrative regulations.

  第一百七十四條法律對其他有償合同有規定的,依照其規定;沒有規定的,參照買賣合同的有關規定。

  Article 174 General Applicability to Contracts for Value For any other contract for value, if the law provides for such contract, such provisions apply; absent any such provision, reference shall be made to the relevant provisions governing sales contracts.

  第一百七十五條當事人約定易貨交易,轉移標的物的所有權的,參照買賣合同的有關規定。

  Article 175 Applicability to Barter Transaction Where the parties agree on a barter transaction involving transfer of title to the subject matters, such transaction shall be governed by reference to the relevant provisions governing sales contracts.

  第十章 供用電、水、氣、熱力合同

  Chapter Ten: Contracts for Supply of Power, Water, Gas , Or Heat

  第一百七十六條供用電合同是供電人向用電人供電,用電人支付電費的合同。

  Article 176 Definition of Power Supply Contract A power supply contract is a contract whereby the power supplier supplies power to the power customer, who pays the electricity charge.

  第一百七十七條供用電合同的內容包括供電的方式、質量、時間,用電容量、地址、性質,計量方式,電價、電費的結算方式,供用電設施的維護責任等條款。

  Article 177 Terms of Power Supply Contract A power supply contract includes terms such as the method, quality, and time of power supply, and the capacity, location and nature of power use, and the metering method, electricity rate, the method of settlement of electricity charge, and the responsibility for maintenance of the power supply and power use facilities, etc.

  第一百七十八條供用電合同的履行地點,按照當事人約定;當事人沒有約定或者約定不明確的,供電設施的產權分界處為履行地點。

  Article 178 Place of Performance of Power Supply Contract The place of performance of a power supply contract shall be the place prescribed by the parties, and if not prescribed or clearly prescribed, the place of performance shall be the boundary where ownership of the power supply facilities is divided.

  第一百七十九條供電人應當按照國家規定的供電質量標準和約定安全供電。供電人未按照國家規定的供電質量標準和約定安全供電,造成用電人損失的,應當承擔損害賠償責任。

  Article 179 Obligations of Power Supplier The power supplier shall supply power in a safe manner in accordance with the power supply quality standard mandated by the state and in accordance with the contract. Where the power supplier failed to supply power in a safe manner in accordance with the power supply quality standard mandated by the state and in accordance with the contract, thereby causing loss to the power customer, it shall be liable for damages.

  第一百八十條供電人因供電設施計劃檢修、臨時檢修、依法限電或者用電人違法用電等原因,需要中斷供電時,應當按照國家有關規定事先通知用電人。未事先通知用電人中斷供電,造成用電人損失的,應當承擔損害賠償責任。

  Article 180 Obligation to Notify in Case of Scheduled Suspension Where the power supplier needs to suspend power supply due to reasons such as periodical maintenance or provisional maintenance of the power supply facilities, legally required power rationing, or illegal use of power by the power customer, etc., it shall notify the power customer in advance in accordance with the relevant stipulations of the state. Where the power supplier suspended power supply without notifying the power customer in advance, thereby causing loss to the power customer, it shall be liable for damages.

  第一百八十一條因自然災害等原因斷電,供電人應當按照國家有關規定及時搶修。未及時搶修,造成用電人損失的,應當承擔損害賠償責任。

  Article 181 Obligation to Make Emergency Repair in Case of Power Outage Where a power outage is caused by reasons such as natural disasters, etc., the power supplier shall timely make emergency repair in accordance with the relevant stipulations of the state. Where the power supplier failed to timely make emergency repair, thereby causing loss to the power customer, it shall be liable for damages.

  第一百八十二條用電人應當按照國家有關規定和當事人的約定及時交付電費。用電人逾期不交付電費的,應當按照約定支付違約金。經催告用電人在合理期限內仍不交付電費和違約金的,供電人可以按照國家規定的程序中止供電。

  Article 182 Payment of Electricity Charge The power customer shall timely pay the electricity charge in accordance with the relevant stipulations of the state and in accordance with the contract. Where the power customer delayed in paying the electricity charge, it shall pay liquidated damages in accordance with the contract. Where the power customer failed to pay the electricity charge and liquidated damages within a reasonable time after receiving demand for payment, the power supplier may shut off the power supply in accordance with the procedure prescribed by the state.

  第一百八十三條用電人應當按照國家有關規定和當事人的約定安全用電。用電人未按照國家有關規定和當事人的約定安全用電,造成供電人損失的,應當承擔損害賠償責任。

  Article 183 Power Customer's Obligation of Proper Use The power customer shall use power in a safe manner in accordance with the relevant stipulations of the state and in accordance with the contract. Where the power customer failed to use power in a safe manner in accordance with the relevant stipulations of the state and in accordance with the contract, thereby causing loss to the power supplier, it shall be liable for damages.

  第一百八十四條供用水、供用氣、供用熱力合同,參照供用電合同的有關規定。

  Article 184 Applicability to Contract for Supply of Water, Gas or Heat A contract for the supply of water, gas or heat shall be governed by reference to the relevant provisions governing power supply contracts.

  第十一章 贈與合同

  Chapter Eleven: Gift Contracts

  第一百八十五條贈與合同是贈與人將自己的財產無償給予受贈人,受贈人表示接受贈與的合同。

  Article 185 Definition of Gift Contract A gift contract is a contract whereby the donor conveys his property to the donee without reward and the donee manifests his acceptance of the gift.

  第一百八十六條贈與人在贈與財產的權利轉移之前可以撤銷贈與。

  Article 186 Revocation Prior to Transfer of Rights; Exception Prior to the transfer of rights to the gift property, the donor may revoke the gift.

  具有救災、扶貧等社會公益、道德義務性質的贈與合同或者經過公證的贈與合同,不適用前款規定。

  The previous paragraph does not apply to any gift contract the nature of which serves public interests or fulfills a moral obligation, such as disaster relief, poverty relief, etc., or any gift contract which has been notarized.

  第一百八十七條贈與的財產依法需要辦理登記等手續的,應當辦理有關手續。

  Article 187 Observance of Conveyance Procedure Where conveyance of the gift property is subject to any procedure such as registration, etc. under the law, the relevant procedure shall be carried out.

  第一百八十八條具有救災、扶貧等社會公益、道德義務性質的贈與合同或者經過公證的贈與合同,贈與人不交付贈與的財產的,受贈人可以要求交付。

  Article 188 Donee's Right to Require Delivery in Certain Cases In the case of a gift contract the nature of which serves public interests or fulfills a moral obligation, such as disaster relief, poverty relief, etc., or a gift contract which has been notarized, if the donor fails to deliver the gift property, the donee may require delivery.

  第一百八十九條因贈與人故意或者重大過失致使贈與的財產毀損、滅失的,贈與人應當承擔損害賠償責任。

  Article 189 Liability of Donor for Misconduct or Gross Negligence Where the gift property is damaged or lost due to any intentional misconduct or gross negligence of the donor, he shall be liable for damages.

  第一百九十條贈與可以附義務。

  Article 190 Gift May Be Subject to Obligations A gift may be subject to obligations.

  贈與附義務的,受贈人應當按照約定履行義務。

  Where the gift is subject to obligations, the donee shall perform his obligations in accordance with the contract.

  第一百九十一條贈與的財產有瑕疵的,贈與人不承擔責任。附義務的贈與,贈與的財產有瑕疵的,贈與人在附義務的限度內承擔與出賣人相同的責任。

  Article 191 Donor Not Liable for Defect; Exceptions The donor is not liable for any defect in the gift property. Where the gift is subject to obligations, and the gift property is defective, the donor has the same warranty obligations as a seller to the extent of the prescribed obligations.

  贈與人故意不告知瑕疵或者保證無瑕疵,造成受贈人損失的,應當承擔損害賠償責任。

  Where the donor intentionally omitted to inform the donee of the defect or warranted the absence of any defect, thereby causing loss to the donee, he shall be liable for damages.

  第一百九十二條受贈人有下列情形之一的,贈與人可以撤銷贈與:

  Article 192 Circumstances Giving Rise to Revocation Right Where the donee is in any of the following circumstances, the donor may revoke the gift:

  (一)嚴重侵害贈與人或者贈與人的近親屬;

  (i) seriously harming the donor or any immediate family member thereof;

  (二)對贈與人有扶養義務而不履行;

  (ii) failing to perform support obligations owed to the donor;

  (三)不履行贈與合同約定的義務。

  (iii) failing to perform the obligations under the gift contract.

  贈與人的撤銷權,自知道或者應當知道撤銷原因之日起一年內行使。

  The donor shall exercise his revocation right within one year after he became, or should have become, aware of the cause for revocation.

  第一百九十三條因受贈人的違法行為致使贈與人死亡或者喪失民事行為能力的,贈與人的繼承人或者法定代理人可以撤銷贈與。

  Article 193 Exercise of Revocation Right by Heir Where the donor is deceased or incapacitated due to the donee's illegal act, his heir or legal agent may revoke the gift.

  贈與人的繼承人或者法定代理人的撤銷權,自知道或者應當知道撤銷原因之日起六個月內行使。

  The heir or legal agent of the donor shall exercise the right of revocation within six months after he became, or should have become, aware of the cause for revocation.

  第一百九十四條撤銷權人撤銷贈與的,可以向受贈人要求返還贈與的財產。

  Article 194 Remedies in Case of Revocation Upon revocation of the gift, the person with the revocation right may claim restitution of the gift property from the donee.

  第一百九十五條贈與人的經濟狀況顯著惡化,嚴重影響其生產經營或者家庭生活的,可以不再履行贈與義務。

  Article 195 Economic Hardship Releases Gift Obligation If the donor's economic situation has deteriorated significantly, thereby seriously impacting on his business operation or family life, he may be released from the gift obligations.

  第十二章 借款合同

  Chapter Twelve: Contracts for Loan of Money

  第一百九十六條借款合同是借款人向貸款人借款,到期返還借款并支付利息的合同。

  Article 196 Definition of Contract for Loan of Money A contract for loan of money is a contract whereby the borrower borrows a sum of money from the lender, and returns the sum borrowed and pays interest thereon at the prescribed time.

  第一百九十七條借款合同采用書面形式,但自然人之間借款另有約定的除外。

  Article 197 Writing Requirement; Terms A contract for loan of money shall be in writing, except where the loan is between natural persons who have agreed otherwise.

  借款合同的內容包括借款種類、幣種、用途、數額、利率、期限和還款方式等條款。

  A contract for loan of money includes terms such as the loan's type, currency, purpose, amount, interest rate, term and method of repayment, etc.

  第一百九十八條訂立借款合同,貸款人可以要求借款人提供擔保。擔保依照《中華人民共和國擔保法》的規定。

  Article 198 Assurance by Borrower In entering into a contract for loan of money, the lender may require the borrower to provide assurance. Such assurance shall be arranged in accordance with the Security Law of the People's Republic of China.

  第一百九十九條訂立借款合同,借款人應當按照貸款人的要求提供與借款有關的業務活動和財務狀況的真實情況。

  Article 199 Borrower's Disclosure Obligation In entering into a contract for loan of money, the borrower shall provide true information concerning its business operation and financial condition in connection with the loan as required by the lender.

  第二百條借款的利息不得預先在本金中扣除。利息預先在本金中扣除的,應當按照實際借款數額返還借款并計算利息。

  Article 200 Deduction of Interest in Advance Prohibited No interest shall be deducted from the principal in advance. Where any interest amount is deducted from the principal in advance, the repayment of principal and calculation of interest shall be based on the actual amount borrowed.

  第二百零一條貸款人未按照約定的日期、數額提供借款,造成借款人損失的,應當賠償損失。

  Article 201 Remedies in Case of Failure to Make Loan Amount Available Or Failure to Draw Down Where the lender failed to make the loan amount available on the prescribed date and in the prescribed amount, thereby causing loss to the borrower, it shall pay damages.

  借款人未按照約定的日期、數額收取借款的,應當按照約定的日期、數額支付利息。

  Where the borrower failed to draw down on the prescribed date and in the prescribed amount, it shall nevertheless pay the interest on the prescribed date and in the prescribed amount.

  第二百零二條貸款人按照約定可以檢查、監督借款的使用情況。借款人應當按照約定向貸款人定期提供有關財務會計報表等資料。

  Article 202 Lender Entitled to Monitor Use of Proceeds The lender may examine and monitor the application of the proceeds in accordance with the contract. The borrower shall periodically provide the lender with materials such as related financial and accounting reports, etc. in accordance with the contract.

  第二百零三條借款人未按照約定的借款用途使用借款的,貸款人可以停止發放借款、提前收回借款或者解除合同。

  Article 203 Lender's Remedies in Case of Borrower's Misuse of Proceeds Where the borrower fails to use the proceeds for the prescribed purpose, the lender may withhold funding, call the loan, or terminate the contract.

  第二百零四條辦理貸款業務的金融機構貸款的利率,應當按照中國人民銀行規定的貸款利率的上下限確定。

  Article 204 Minimum and Maximum Interest Rates The interest rate on the loan provided by a financial institution engaged in lending operation shall be prescribed between the minimum and maximum rates mandated by the People's Bank of China.

  第二百零五條借款人應當按照約定的期限支付利息。對支付利息的期限沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定,借款期間不滿一年的,應當在返還借款時一并支付;借款期間一年以上的,應當在每屆滿一年時支付,剩余期間不滿一年的,應當在返還借款時一并支付。

  Article 205 Time of Interest Payment The borrower shall pay the interest at the prescribed time. Where the time of interest payment was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, if the loan term is less than one year, the interest shall be paid together with the principal at the time of repayment; if the loan term is one year or longer, the interest shall be paid at the end of each annual period, and where the remaining period is less than one year, the interest shall be paid together with the principal at the time of repayment.

  第二百零六條借款人應當按照約定的期限返還借款。對借款期限沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,借款人可以隨時返還;貸款人可以催告借款人在合理期限內返還。

  Article 206 Time of Principal Repayment The borrower shall repay the principal at the prescribed time. Where the time of repayment was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, the borrower may repay at any time; and the lender may demand repayment from the borrower within a reasonable time.

  第二百零七條借款人未按照約定的期限返還借款的,應當按照約定或者國家有關規定支付逾期利息。

  Article 207 Delayed Repayment Interest Where the borrower failed to repay the loan at the prescribed time, it shall pay delayed repayment interest in accordance with the contract or the relevant stipulations of the state.

  第二百零八條借款人提前償還借款的,除當事人另有約定的以外,應當按照實際借款的期間計算利息。

  Article 208 Calculation of Interest in Case of Prepayment Where the borrower prepays the loan, unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the interest shall be calculated based on the actual period of loan.

  第二百零九條借款人可以在還款期限屆滿之前向貸款人申請展期。貸款人同意的,可以展期。

  Article 209 Extension of Loan Term The borrower may apply to the lender for extension of the loan term before its maturity. Upon consent by the lender, the loan term may be extended.

  第二百一十條自然人之間的借款合同,自貸款人提供借款時生效。

  Article 210 Time of Effectiveness of Loan Contract between Natural Persons A contract for loan of money between natural persons becomes effective at the time the lender makes the loan amount available.

  第二百一十一條自然人之間的借款合同對支付利息沒有約定或者約定不明確的,視為不支付利息。

  Article 211 Interest under Loan Contract between Natural Persons Under a contract for loan of money between natural persons, if payment of interest was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, the loan is deemed interest free.

  自然人之間的借款合同約定支付利息的,借款的利率不得違反國家有關限制借款利率的規定。

  Under a contract for loan of money between natural persons, the interest rate on the loan may not contravene the relevant stipulations of the state regarding limit on loan interest rate.

  第十三章 租賃合同

  Chapter Thirteen: Leasing Contracts

  第二百一十二條租賃合同是出租人將租賃物交付承租人使用、收益,承租人支付租金的合同。

  Article 212 Definition of Leasing Contract A leasing contract is a contract whereby the lessor delivers to the lessee the lease item for it to use or accrue benefit from, and the lessee pays the rent.

  第二百一十三條租賃合同的內容包括租賃物的名稱、數量、用途、租賃期限、租金及其支付期限和方式、租賃物維修等條款。

  Article 213 Terms of Leasing Contract A leasing contract includes terms such as the name, quantity and purpose of the lease item, lease term, amount of rent, time and method of rent payment, as well as maintenance and repair of the lease item, etc.

  第二百一十四條租賃期限不得超過二十年。超過二十年的,超過部分無效。

  Article 214 Limit on Lease Term; Renewal The lease term may not exceed twenty years. If the lease term exceeds twenty years, the portion of the lease term beyond the initial twenty year period is invalid.

  租賃期間屆滿,當事人可以續訂租賃合同,但約定的租賃期限自續訂之日起不得超過二十年。

  At the end of the lease term, the parties may renew the lease, provided that the renewed term may not exceed twenty years commencing on the date of renewal.

  第二百一十五條租賃期限六個月以上的,應當采用書面形式。當事人未采用書面形式的,視為不定期租賃。

  Article 215 Writing Requirement in Case Lease Term Is Six Months or Longer Where the lease term is six months or longer, the lease shall be in writing. If the parties fail to adopt a writing, the lease is deemed a non-term lease.

  第二百一十六條出租人應當按照約定將租賃物交付承租人,并在租賃期間保持租賃物符合約定的用途。

  Article 216 Lessor's Obligation to Deliver Lease Item The lessor shall deliver the lease item to the lessee in accordance with the contract and shall, during the lease term, keep the lease item fit for the prescribed purpose.

  第二百一十七條承租人應當按照約定的方法使用租賃物。對租賃物的使用方法沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,應當按照租賃物的性質使用。

  Article 217 Manner of Using Lease Item The lessee shall use the lease item in the prescribed manner. Where the manner of use of the lease item was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, the lease item shall be used in a manner consistent with its nature.

  第二百一十八條承租人按照約定的方法或者租賃物的性質使用租賃物,致使租賃物受到損耗的,不承擔損害賠償責任。

  Article 218 Lessee Not Liable for Wear and Tear Where the lessee used the lease item in the prescribed manner or in a manner consistent with its nature, thereby causing wear and tear to the lease item, it is not liable for damages.

  第二百一十九條承租人未按照約定的方法或者租賃物的性質使用租賃物,致使租賃物受到損失的,出租人可以解除合同并要求賠償損失。

  Article 219 Lessor Entitled to Terminate in Case of Unauthorized Use Where the lessee failed to use the lease item in the prescribed manner or in a manner consistent with its nature, thereby causing damage to it, the lessor may terminate the contract and claim damages.

  第二百二十條出租人應當履行租賃物的維修義務,但當事人另有約定的除外。

  Article 220 Lessor's Maintenance Obligations The lessor shall perform the obligations of maintenance and repair of the lease item, except otherwise agreed by the parties.

  第二百二十一條承租人在租賃物需要維修時可以要求出租人在合理期限內維修。

  Article 221 Lessee's Remedies in Case of Lessor's Failure to Maintain Lease Item Where the lease item needs maintenance or repair, the lessee may require the lessor to perform maintenance or repair within a reasonable time.

  出租人未履行維修義務的,承租人可以自行維修,維修費用由出租人負擔。因維修租賃物影響承租人使用的,應當相應減少租金或者延長租期。

  If the lessor fails to fulfill its obligations of maintenance or repair, the lessee may maintain or repair the lease item on its own at the lessor's expense. Where the lessee's use of the lease item is impaired due to maintenance or repair thereof, the rent shall be reduced or the lease term shall be extended accordingly.

  第二百二十二條承租人應當妥善保管租賃物,因保管不善造成租賃物毀損、滅失的,應當承擔損害賠償責任。

  Article 222 Lessee's Obligation of Due Care The lessee shall keep the lease item with due care and shall be liable for damages if the lease item was damaged or lost due to improper care.

  第二百二十三條承租人經出租人同意,可以對租賃物進行改善或者增設他物。

  Article 223 Improvement or Addition Subject to consent by the lessor, the lessee may make improvement on or addition to the lease item.

  承租人未經出租人同意,對租賃物進行改善或者增設他物的,出租人可以要求承租人恢復原狀或者賠償損失。

  If the lessee made improvement on or addition to the lease item without consent by the lessor, the lessor may require the lessee to restore the lease item to its original condition or claim damages.

  第二百二十四條承租人經出租人同意,可以將租賃物轉租給第三人。承租人轉租的,承租人與出租人之間的租賃合同繼續有效,第三人對租賃物造成損失的,承租人應當賠償損失。

  Article 224 Sublease Subject to consent by the lessor, the lessee may sublease the lease item to a third person. Where the lessee subleases the lease item, the leasing contract between the lessee and the lessor remains valid, and if the third person causes damage to the lease item, the lessee shall pay damages.

  承租人未經出租人同意轉租的,出租人可以解除合同。

  Where the lessee subleases the lease item without the consent of the lessor, the lessor may terminate the contract.

  第二百二十五條在租賃期間因占有、使用租賃物獲得的收益,歸承租人所有,但當事人另有約定的除外。

  Article 225 Benefit Accrued from Lease Item During Lease Term During the lease term, any benefit accrued from the possession or use of the lease item belongs to the lessee, except otherwise agreed by the parties.

  第二百二十六條承租人應當按照約定的期限支付租金。對支付期限沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定,租賃期間不滿一年的,應當在租賃期間屆滿時支付;租賃期間一年以上的,應當在每屆滿一年時支付,剩余期間不滿一年的,應當在租賃期間屆滿時支付。

  Article 226 Time for Rent Payment The lessee shall pay the rent at the prescribed time. Where the time of payment was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, the rent shall be paid at the end of the lease term if it is less than one year; if the lease term is one year or longer, the rent shall be paid at the end of each annual period, and where the remaining period is less than one year, the rent shall be paid at the end of the lease term.

  第二百二十七條承租人無正當理由未支付或者遲延支付租金的,出租人可以要求承租人在合理期限內支付。承租人逾期不支付的,出租人可以解除合同。

  Article 227 Lessor's Remedies in Case of Non-Payment of Rent Where the lessee failed to pay or delayed in paying the rent without cause, the lessor may require the lessee to pay the rent within a reasonable period. If the lessee fails to pay the rent at the end of such period, the lessor may terminate the contract.

  第二百二十八條因第三人主張權利,致使承租人不能對租賃物使用、收益的,承租人可以要求減少租金或者不支付租金。

  Article 228 Lessee's Remedies in Case of Third Party Claim; Duty to Notify If due to any claim by a third person, the lessee is unable to use or accrue benefit from the lease item, the lessee may require reduction in rent or refuse to pay rent.

  第三人主張權利的,承租人應當及時通知出租人。

  In case of any claim by a third person, the lessee shall timely notify the lessor.

  第二百二十九條租賃物在租賃期間發生所有權變動的,不影響租賃合同的效力。

  Article 229 Leasing Contract Not Affected by Change of Ownership Any change of ownership to the lease item does not affect the validity of the leasing contract.

  第二百三十條出租人出賣租賃房屋的,應當在出賣之前的合理期限內通知承租人,承租人享有以同等條件優先購買的權利。

  Article 230 Sale of Dwelling Unit under Lease Where the lessor is to sell a dwelling unit under a lease, it shall give the lessee a reasonable advance notice before the sale, and the lessee has the right of first refusal under the same conditions.

  第二百三十一條因不可歸責于承租人的事由,致使租賃物部分或者全部毀損、滅失的,承租人可以要求減少租金或者不支付租金;因租賃物部分或者全部毀損、滅失,致使不能實現合同目的的,承租人可以解除合同。

  Article 231 Lessee's Remedies in Case of Damage Not Attributable to Itself Where the lease item was damaged or lost in part or in whole due to any reason not attributable to the lessee, the lessee may require reduction in rent or refuse to pay rent; where the purpose of the contract is frustrated due to damage to or loss of the lease item in part or in whole, the lessee may terminate the contract.

  第二百三十二條當事人對租賃期限沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,視為不定期租賃。當事人可以隨時解除合同,但出租人解除合同應當在合理期限之前通知承租人。

  Article 232 Non-Term Lease Where the term of a lease was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, such lease is deemed a non-term lease. Either party may terminate the contract at any time, provided that the lessor shall give the lessee a reasonable advance notice before it terminates the contract.

  第二百三十三條租賃物危及承租人的安全或者健康的,即使承租人訂立合同時明知該租賃物質量不合格,承租人仍然可以隨時解除合同。

  Article 233 Lessee Entitled to Terminate in Case of Danger to Safety or Health Where the lease item poses a danger to the safety or health of the lessee, the lessee may terminate the contract at any time even if the lessee was aware of the quality non-compliance of the lease item at the time of conclusion of the contract.

  第二百三十四條承租人在房屋租賃期間死亡的,與其生前共同居住的人可以按照原租賃合同租賃該房屋。

  Article 234 Lease of Dwelling Unit Assumable Where the lessee is deceased during the term of a dwelling unit lease, the person jointly living in the unit with the lessee while the lessee was alive may continue leasing it on the terms of the original leasing contract.

  第二百三十五條租賃期間屆滿,承租人應當返還租賃物。返還的租賃物應當符合按照約定或者租賃物的性質使用后的狀態。

  Article 235 Condition of Lease Item at End of Lease Term The lessee shall return the lease item at the end of the lease term. The returned lease item shall be in a condition resulting from its use in the prescribed manner or in a manner consistent with its nature.

  第二百三十六條租賃期間屆滿,承租人繼續使用租賃物,出租人沒有提出異議的,原租賃合同繼續有效,但租賃期限為不定期。

  Article 236 Effect of Continued Use Beyond Lease Term Upon expiration of the lease term, if the lessee continues to use the lease item without objection by the lessor, the original leasing contract remains effective, provided that it becomes a non-term lease.

  第十四章 融資租賃合同

  Chapter Fourteen: Financial Leasing Contracts

  第二百三十七條融資租賃合同是出租人根據承租人對出賣人、租賃物的選擇,向出賣人購買租賃物,提供給承租人使用,承租人支付租金的合同。

  Article 237 Definition of Financial Leasing Contract A financial leasing contract is a contract whereby the lessor, upon purchase of the lessee-selected lease item from a lessee-selected seller, provides the lease item to the lessee for its use, and the lessee pays the rent.

  第二百三十八條融資租賃合同的內容包括租賃物名稱、數量、規格、技術性能、檢驗方法、租賃期限、租金構成及其支付期限和方式、幣種、租賃期間屆滿租賃物的歸屬等條款。

  Article 238 Terms of Financial Leasing Contract; Writing Requirement A financial leasing contract includes terms such as the name, quantity, specifications, technical performance, and method of inspection of the lease item, the lease term, the rental components and the time, method and currency of payment, as well as the ownership of the lease item at the end of the lease term, etc.

  融資租賃合同應當采用書面形式。

  A financial leasing contract shall be in writing.

  第二百三十九條出租人根據承租人對出賣人、租賃物的選擇訂立的買賣合同,出賣人應當按照約定向承租人交付標的物,承租人享有與受領標的物有關的買受人的權利。

  Article 239 Lessee's Assumption of Buyer's Rights Under the sales contract concluded by the lessor according to the lessee's selection of the seller and the lease item, the seller shall deliver the subject matter to the lessee in accordance with the contract, and the lessee enjoys the rights of the buyer in respect of taking delivery of the subject matter.

  第二百四十條出租人、出賣人、承租人可以約定,出賣人不履行買賣合同義務的,由承租人行使索賠的權利。承租人行使索賠權利的,出租人應當協助。

  Article 240 Lessee's Assumption of Buyer's Remedies in Case of Seller's Non-performance The lessor, the seller and the lessee may agree that any claim arising from the seller's non-performance of its obligations under the sales contract will be made by the lessee. Where the lessee makes such a claim, the lessor shall provide assistance.

  第二百四十一條出租人根據承租人對出賣人、租賃物的選擇訂立的買賣合同,未經承租人同意,出租人不得變更與承租人有關的合同內容。

  Article 241 Certain Amendment of Sales Contract Subject to Consent by Lessee Absent consent by the lessee, the lessor may not amend any lessee-related term in the sales contract concluded by it according to the lessee's selection of the seller and the lease item.

  第二百四十二條出租人享有租賃物的所有權。承租人破產的,租賃物不屬于破產財產。

  Article 242 Exclusion of Lease Item from Bankruptcy Assets of Lessee Title to the lease item vests in the lessor. In case the lessee enters into bankruptcy, the lease item is not part of its bankruptcy assets.

  第二百四十三條融資租賃合同的租金,除當事人另有約定的以外,應當根據購買租賃物的大部分或者全部成本以及出租人的合理利潤確定。

  Article 243 Determination of Rental Components Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the rent under a financial leasing contract shall be determined based on the major portion of or full costs of purchasing the lease item and the lessor's reasonable profit.

  第二百四十四條租賃物不符合約定或者不符合使用目的的,出租人不承擔責任,但承租人依賴出租人的技能確定租賃物或者出租人干預選擇租賃物的除外。

  Article 244 Lessor Not Liable for Non-fitness of Lease Item; Exceptions Where the lease item does not comply with the contract or is not fit for the intended purpose, the lessor is not liable, except where the lessee relied on the skills of the lessor in selecting the lease item or the lessor interfered in the selection thereof.

  第二百四十五條出租人應當保證承租人對租賃物的占有和使用。

  Article 245 Warranty by Lessor The lessor shall give warranty in respect of the lessee's possession and use of the lease item.

  第二百四十六條承租人占有租賃物期間,租賃物造成第三人的人身傷害或者財產損害的,出租人不承擔責任。

  Article 246 Lessor Not Liable for Damage or Injury If while in the possession of the lessee, the lease item caused personal injury or property damage to any third person, the lessor is not liable.

  第二百四十七條承租人應當妥善保管、使用租賃物。

  Article 247 Lessee's Obligation of Due Care; Maintenance Obligations The lessee shall keep and use the lease item with due care.

  承租人應當履行占有租賃物期間的維修義務。

  While in possession of the lease item, the lessee shall perform the obligations of maintenance and repair thereof.

  第二百四十八條承租人應當按照約定支付租金。承租人經催告后在合理期限內仍不支付租金的,出租人可以要求支付全部租金;也可以解除合同,收回租賃物。

  Article 248 Lessor' s Remedies in Case of Non-payment by Lessee The lessee shall pay the rent in accordance with the contract. Where the lessee fails to pay the rent within a reasonable period after receiving demand for payment from the lessor, the lessor may require payment of the full rent; or it may terminate the contract and repossess the lease item.

  第二百四十九條當事人約定租賃期間屆滿租賃物歸承租人所有,承租人已經支付大部分租金,但無力支付剩余租金,出租人因此解除合同收回租賃物的,收回的租賃物的價值超過承租人欠付的租金以及其他費用的,承租人可以要求部分返還。

  Article 249 Partial Refund in Case of Termination by Lessor Where the parties agreed that title to the lease item will vest in the lessee at the end of the lease term, and after paying a major portion of the rent, the lessee is unable to pay the remaining balance, resulting in the lessor's termination of the contract and repossession of the lease item, if the value of the repossessed lease item exceeds the rent owed by the lessee and other expenses, the lessee may require partial refund.

  第二百五十條出租人和承租人可以約定租賃期間屆滿租賃物的歸屬。對租賃物的歸屬沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,租賃物的所有權歸出租人。

  Article 250 Ownership of Lease Item at End of Lease Term The lessor and the lessee may agree on the ownership of the lease item at the end of the lease term. Where ownership of the lease item was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, title to the lease item shall vest in the lessor.

  第十五 章承攬合同

  Chapter Fifteen: Contracts of Hired Works

  第二百五十一條承攬合同是承攬人按照定作人的要求完成工作,交付工作成果,定作人給付報酬的合同。

  Article 251 Definition of Contract of Hired Work A contract of hired work is a contract whereby the hiree completes certain work as required by the hirer and delivers the work product, and the hirer pays the remuneration.

  承攬包括加工、定作、修理、復制、測試、檢驗等工作。

  Hired works include works such as processing, custom-made work, repair, reproduction, testing, and inspection, etc.

  第二百五十二條承攬合同的內容包括承攬的標的、數量、質量、報酬、承攬方式、材料的提供、履行期限、驗收標準和方法等條款。

  Article 252 Terms of Contract of Hired Work A contract of hired work includes terms such as the subject matter of hire, quantity, quality, remuneration, method of hire, supply of materials, time of performance, standard applicable to and method of acceptance inspection, etc.

  第二百五十三條承攬人應當以自己的設備、技術和勞力,完成主要工作,但當事人另有約定的除外。

  Article 253 Use of Hiree's Own Resources; Delegation of Main Task Subject to Consent The hiree shall use its own equipment, skills and labor to complete the main tasks, except otherwise agreed by the parties.

  承攬人將其承攬的主要工作交由第三人完成的,應當就該第三人完成的工作成果向定作人負責;未經定作人同意的,定作人也可以解除合同。

  Where the hiree has delegated a main task of the hired work to a third person for completion, it shall be responsible to the hirer for the work product completed thereby; if the delegation was not approved by the hirer, the hirer may also terminate the contract.

  第二百五十四條承攬人可以將其承攬的輔助工作交由第三人完成。承攬人將其承攬的輔助工作交由第三人完成的,應當就該第三人完成的工作成果向定作人負責。

  Article 254 Delegation of Ancillary Task by Hiree The hiree may delegate any ancillary task of the hired work to a third person for completion. Where the hiree delegated any ancillary task of the hired work to a third person for completion, it shall be responsible to the hirer for the work product completed thereby.

  第二百五十五條承攬人提供材料的,承攬人應當按照約定選用材料,并接受定作人檢驗。

  Article 255 Materials Supplied by Hiree Subject to Inspection Where the hiree is to supply the materials, it shall select the materials in accordance with the contract and shall make such materials available for inspection by the hirer.

  第二百五十六條定作人提供材料的,定作人應當按照約定提供材料。承攬人對定作人提供的材料,應當及時檢驗,發現不符合約定時,應當及時通知定作人更換、補齊或者采取其他補救措施。

  Article 256 Hiree's Timely Inspection of Materials Supplied by Hirer Where the hirer is to supply the materials, it shall supply the materials in accordance with the contract. The hiree shall timely inspect the materials supplied by the hirer, and where non-compliance is discovered, it shall timely instruct the hirer to replace or supplement the materials or otherwise cure the non-compliance.

  承攬人不得擅自更換定作人提供的材料,不得更換不需要修理的零部件。

  The hiree may not replace the materials supplied by the hirer without authorization, and may not replace any component which does not require repair.

  第二百五十七條承攬人發現定作人提供的圖紙或者技術要求不合理的,應當及時通知定作人。因定作人怠于答復等原因造成承攬人損失的,應當賠償損失。

  Article 257 Hiree's Remedies in Case of Hirer's Delay in Responding Where the hiree discovers that the drawings or technical requirements provided by the hirer are unreasonable, it shall timely notify the hirer. Where the hiree sustains any loss due to reasons such as the hirer's delay in responding, etc., the hirer shall pay damages.

  第二百五十八條定作人中途變更承攬工作的要求,造成承攬人損失的,應當賠償損失。

  Article 258 Hirer Responsible for Its Change of Requirements Where the hirer changed its requirements for the hired work while the work was under way, thereby causing loss to the hiree, the hirer shall indemnify the hiree.

  第二百五十九條承攬工作需要定作人協助的,定作人有協助的義務。定作人不履行協助義務致使承攬工作不能完成的,承攬人可以催告定作人在合理期限內履行義務,并可以順延履行期限;定作人逾期不履行的,承攬人可以解除合同。

  Article 259 Hirer's Obligation to Assist in Performance Where performance of the hired work requires assistance by the hirer, it is obligated to provide assistance. Where the hired work is not capable of being completed due to failure by the hirer to fulfill its obligation to assist, the hiree may demand performance from the hirer within a reasonable period and extend the time of its own performance; where the hirer fails to perform at the end of such period, the hiree may terminate the contract.

  第二百六十條承攬人在工作期間,應當接受定作人必要的監督檢驗。定作人不得因監督檢驗妨礙承攬人的正常工作。

  Article 260 Hirer's Right to Monitor In the course of performing the hired work, the hiree shall consent to any necessary monitoring and inspection by the hirer. Any monitoring or inspection conducted by the hirer may not impair the normal work of the hiree.

  第二百六十一條承攬人完成工作的,應當向定作人交付工作成果,并提交必要的技術資料和有關質量證明。定作人應當驗收該工作成果。

  Article 261 Delivery of Work Product by Hiree Upon completion of the hired work, the hiree shall deliver the work product to the hirer and shall submit thereto the required technical materials and related quality certificate. The hirer shall conduct acceptance inspection of the work product.

  第二百六十二條承攬人交付的工作成果不符合質量要求的,定作人可以要求承攬人承擔修理、重作、減少報酬、賠償損失等違約責任。

  Article 262 Hirer's Remedies in Case of Quality Non-compliance Where the work product delivered by the hiree fails to meet the quality requirements, the hirer may require the hiree to assume liabilities for breach of contract by way of repair, remaking, reduction in remuneration, or payment of damages.

  第二百六十三條定作人應當按照約定的期限支付報酬。對支付報酬的期限沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,定作人應當在承攬人交付工作成果時支付;工作成果部分交付的,定作人應當相應支付。

  Article 263 Time of Payment of Remuneration The hirer shall pay the remuneration at the prescribed time. Where the time of payment was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, the hirer shall make payment at the time of the hiree's delivery of the work product; where the work product is partially delivered, the hirer shall make payment accordingly.

  第二百六十四條定作人未向承攬人支付報酬或者材料費等價款的,承攬人對完成的工作成果享有留置權,但當事人另有約定的除外。

  Article 264 Hiree's Possessory Lien in Case of Non-Payment Where the hirer fails to pay the remuneration or cost of materials, etc. to the hiree, the hiree is entitled to a possessory lien on the work product completed, except otherwise agreed by the parties.

  第二百六十五條承攬人應當妥善保管定作人提供的材料以及完成的工作成果,因保管不善造成毀損、滅失的,應當承擔損害賠償責任。

  Article 265 Hiree's Obligation of Due Care for Materials and Work Product The hiree shall keep the materials supplied by the hirer and the completed work product with due care, and shall be liable for damages in case of any damage or loss due to improper care.

  第二百六十六條承攬人應當按照定作人的要求保守秘密,未經定作人許可,不得留存復制品或者技術資料。

  Article 266 Hiree's Confidentiality Obligations The hiree shall keep the relevant information confidential as required by the hirer, and may not retain any replica or technical material without permission by the hirer.

  第二百六十七條共同承攬人對定作人承擔連帶責任,但當事人另有約定的除外。

  Article 267 Liability of Joint Hirees Joint hirees are jointly and severally liable to the hirer, except otherwise agreed by the parties.

  第二百六十八條定作人可以隨時解除承攬合同,造成承攬人損失的,應當賠償損失。

  Article 268 Hirer's Termination Right Subject to Indemnification The hirer may terminate the contract of hired work at any time, provided that it shall indemnify the hiree for its loss as a result, if any.

  第十六章 建設工程合同

  Chapter Sixteen: Contracts for Construction Projects

  第二百六十九條建設工程合同是承包人進行工程建設,發包人支付價款的合同。

  Article 269 Definition of Contract for Construction Project A contract for construction project is a contract whereby the contractor performs project construction, and the developer pays the price.

  建設工程合同包括工程勘察、設計、施工合同。

  Contracts for construction projects include contracts for survey, design, and construction.

  第二百七十條建設工程合同應當采用書面形式。

  Article 270 Writing Requirement A contract for construction project shall be in writing.

  第二百七十一條建設工程的招標投標活動,應當依照有關法律的規定公開、公平、公正進行。

  Article 271 Tendering Process in Construction Project Tendering for a construction project shall be conducted in an open, fair and impartial manner in accordance with the relevant laws.

  第二百七十二條發包人可以與總承包人訂立建設工程合同,也可以分別與勘察人、設計人、施工人訂立勘察、設計、施工承包合同。發包人不得將應當由一個承包人完成的建設工程肢解成若干部分發包給幾個承包人。

  Article 272 Contracting and Subcontracting in Construction Projects The developer may enter into a contract for construction project with a prime contractor, or enter into contracts for survey, design, and construction with the surveyor, designer, and constructor respectively. The developer may not divide a construction project which should be completed by one contractor into several parts and contract them out to several contractors.

  總承包人或者勘察、設計、施工承包人經發包人同意,可以將自己承包的部分工作交由第三人完成。第三人就其完成的工作成果與總承包人或者勘察、設計、施工承包人向發包人承擔連帶責任。承包人不得將其承包的全部建設工程轉包給第三人或者將其承包的全部建設工程肢解以后以分包的名義分別轉包給第三人。

  Subject to consent by the developer, the prime contractor or the contractor for survey, design, or construction may delegate part of the contracted work to a third person. The third person and the prime contractor or the contractor for survey, design, or construction shall be jointly and severally liable to the developer in respect of the work product completed by such third person. The contractor may not assign in whole to any third person the contracted construction project, or divide the whole contracted construction project into several parts and separately assign each part to a third person under the guise of sub-contracting.

  禁止承包人將工程分包給不具備相應資質條件的單位。禁止分包單位將其承包的工程再分包。建設工程主體結構的施工必須由承包人自行完成。

  The contractor is prohibited from sub-contracting any part of the project to an entity not appropriately qualified. A sub-contractor is prohibited from further sub-contracting its contracted work. The main structure of the construction project must be constructed by the contractor itself.

  第二百七十三條國家重大建設工程合同,應當按照國家規定的程序和國家批準的投資計劃、可行性研究報告等文件訂立。

  Article 273 Major State Construction Projects A contract for a major state construction project shall be concluded in accordance with the procedure prescribed by the state and in compliance with the state-approved documents such as the investment plan and feasibility studies report, etc.

  第二百七十四條勘察、設計合同的內容包括提交有關基礎資料和文件(包括概預算)的期限、質量要求、費用以及其他協作條件等條款。

  Article 274 Terms of Contract for Survey or Design A contract for survey or design includes terms such as the time limit for submission of the relevant basic information and documents (including budget estimate), the quality requirements, fees, and other conditions of cooperation, etc.

  第二百七十五條施工合同的內容包括工程范圍、建設工期、中間交工工程的開工和竣工時間、工程質量、工程造價、技術資料交付時間、材料和設備供應責任、撥款和結算、竣工驗收、質量保修范圍和質量保證期、雙方相互協作等條款。

  Article 275 Terms of Construction Contract A construction contract includes terms such as the scope of the project, the construction period, the time for commencement and completion of any work to be commissioned in the interim, the quality of the project, the cost of the project, the time for delivery of technical materials, the responsibilities for the supply of materials and equipment, the appropriation of funds and settlement of account, inspection upon completion of the project, the scope and period of quality warranty, and cooperation between the parties, etc.

  第二百七十六條建設工程實行監理的,發包人應當與監理人采用書面形式訂立委托監理合同。發包人與監理人的權利和義務以及法律責任,應當依照本法委托合同以及其他有關法律、行政法規的規定。

  Article 276 Supervision of Construction Project Where the construction project is subject to supervision, the developer shall enter into an agency appointment contract for project supervision with a project supervisor in writing. The rights, obligations and associated legal liabilities of the developer and supervisor shall be prescribed in accordance with the provisions hereof concerning agency appointment contracts and the provisions of other relevant laws and administrative regulations.

  第二百七十七條發包人在不妨礙承包人正常作業的情況下,可以隨時對作業進度、質量進行檢查。

  Article 277 Developer's Right to Inspect Provided that the developer does not interfere with the normal operation of the contractor, it may inspect the progress and quality of the work at any time.

  第二百七十八條隱蔽工程在隱蔽以前,承包人應當通知發包人檢查。發包人沒有及時檢查的,承包人可以順延工程日期,并有權要求賠償停工、窩工等損失。

  Article 278 Concealed Work In the case of concealed work, the contractor shall give the developer notice for inspection prior to concealment. Where the developer fails to timely conduct inspection, the contractor may extend the relevant project milestones, and is entitled to claim damages for work stoppage or work slowdown, etc.

  第二百七十九條建設工程竣工后,發包人應當根據施工圖紙及說明書、國家頒發的施工驗收規范和質量檢驗標準及時進行驗收。驗收合格的,發包人應當按照約定支付價款,并接收該建設工程。

  Article 279 Inspection of Completed Project; No Use Prior to Inspection Upon completion of the construction project, the developer shall conduct acceptance inspection according to the construction drawings and specifications, and in accordance with the rules of construction inspection and quality inspection standard prescribed by the state. Once the construction project has passed the acceptance inspection, the developer shall pay the prescribed price and accept the construction project.

  建設工程竣工經驗收合格后,方可交付使用;未經驗收或者驗收不合格的,不得交付使用。

  The completed construction project may be put into use only after it has passed the acceptance inspection; if the construction project has not been inspected or has failed the inspection, it may not be put into use.

  第二百八十條勘察、設計的質量不符合要求或者未按照期限提交勘察、設計文件拖延工期,造成發包人損失的,勘察人、設計人應當繼續完善勘察、設計,減收或者免收勘察、設計費并賠償損失。

  Article 280 Developer's Remedies in Case of Non-compliant Survey or Design Where the developer sustains any loss from construction delay due to non-compliance of the survey or design or due to delayed delivery of the survey or design documents, the surveyor or the designer shall continue to improve the survey or design, reduce or forgo the survey fee or design fee, and pay damages.

  第二百八十一條因施工人的原因致使建設工程質量不符合約定的,發包人有權要求施工人在合理期限內無償修理或者返工、改建。經過修理或者返工、改建后,造成逾期交付的,施工人應當承擔違約責任。

  Article 281 Developer's Remedies in Case of Non-conforming Construction Where the construction project fails to meet the prescribed quality requirements due to any reason attributable to the constructor, the developer is entitled to require the constructor to repair, re-construct or make alteration free of charge within a reasonable time. Where delivery of the project is delayed due to such repair, re-construction or alteration, the constructor shall be liable for breach of contract.

  第二百八十二條因承包人的原因致使建設工程在合理使用期限內造成人身和財產損害的,承包人應當承擔損害賠償責任。

  Article 282 Contractor Liable for Personal and Property Damage Where the construction project caused personal injury and property damage during its reasonable usage period due to any reason attributable to the contractor, the contractor shall be liable for damages.

  第二百八十三條發包人未按照約定的時間和要求提供原材料、設備、場地、資金、技術資料的,承包人可以順延工程日期,并有權要求賠償停工、窩工等損失。

  Article 283 Contractor's Remedies in Case of Developer's Failure to Provide Necessary Conditions Where the developer fails to provide raw materials, equipment, site, funds, or technical information at the prescribed time and in accordance with the contractual requirements, the contractor may extend the relevant project milestones, and is entitled to claim damages for work stoppage or slowdown, etc.

  第二百八十四條因發包人的原因致使工程中途停建、緩建的,發包人應當采取措施彌補或者減少損失,賠償承包人因此造成的停工、窩工、倒運、機械設備調遷、材料和構件積壓等損失和實際費用。

  Article 284 Contractor's Remedies in Case of Project Interruption Due to Reasons Attributable to Developer If an ongoing project is stopped or delayed due to any reason attributable to the developer, the developer shall take the appropriate measures to make up or mitigate the loss, and shall indemnify the contractor for its loss and out-of-pocket expenses arising from resulting work stoppage, slowdown, reshipment, re-dispatch of mechanical equipment, and excess inventory of materials and assemblies, etc.

  第二百八十五條因發包人變更計劃,提供的資料不準確,或者未按照期限提供必需的勘察、設計工作條件而造成勘察、設計的返工、停工或者修改設計,發包人應當按照勘察人、設計人實際消耗的工作量增付費用。

  Article 285 Surveyor's Remedies in Case of Developer's Failure to Cooperate Where in the course of survey or design, any repeating work, work stoppage or change of design occurs due to the developer's change of plan, the incorrect information provided by it, or its failure to provide the working conditions necessary for the survey or design at the prescribed time, the developer shall increase the fees in light of the actual amount of work done by the surveyor or designer.

  第二百八十六條發包人未按照約定支付價款的,承包人可以催告發包人在合理期限內支付價款。發包人逾期不支付的,除按照建設工程的性質不宜折價、拍賣的以外,承包人可以與發包人協議將該工程折價,也可以申請人民法院將該工程依法拍賣。

  Article 286 Contractor's Remedies in Case of Developer's Failure to Pay Price If the developer failed to pay the price in accordance with the contract, the contractor may demand payment from the developer within a reasonable period. Where the developer fails to pay the price at the end of such period, the contractor may enter into an agreement with the developer to liquidate the project, and may also petition the People's Court to auction the project in accordance with the law, unless such project is not fit for liquidation or auction in light of its nature.

  建設工程的價款就該工程折價或者拍賣的價款優先受償。

  The construction project price shall be paid in priority out of proceeds from the liquidation or auction of the project.

  第二百八十七條本章沒有規定的,適用承攬合同的有關規定。

  Article 287 Provisions Governing Contracts of Hired Works Applicable A matter not provided for in this Chapter shall be governed by the relevant provision governing contracts of hired works.

  第十七章 運輸合同

  Chapter Seventeen: Carriage Contracts

  第一節 一般規定

  Section One General Provisions

  第二百八十八條運輸合同是承運人將旅客或者貨物從起運地點運輸到約定地點,旅客、托運人或者收貨人支付票款或者運輸費用的合同。

  Article 288 Definition of Carriage Contract A carriage contract is a contract whereby the carrier carries the passenger or cargo from the place of departure to the prescribed destination, and the passenger, consignor or consignee pays the fare or freightage.

  第二百八十九條從事公共運輸的承運人不得拒絕旅客、托運人通常、合理的運輸要求。

  Article 289 Common Carrier May Not Deny Reasonable Carriage Requirement A common carrier may not deny any normal and reasonable carriage requirement by a passenger or consignor.

  第二百九十條承運人應當在約定期間或者合理期間內將旅客、貨物安全運輸到約定地點。

  Article 290 Obligation of Carrier to Carry in Safe and Timely Manner The carrier shall safely carry the passenger or cargo to the prescribed destination within the prescribed time or within a reasonable time.

  第二百九十一條承運人應當按照約定的或者通常的運輸路線將旅客、貨物運輸到約定地點。

  Article 291 Obligation of Carrier to Travel by Prescribed Route The carrier shall carry the passenger or cargo to the prescribed destination by the prescribed route or the normal route.

  第二百九十二條旅客、托運人或者收貨人應當支付票款或者運輸費用。承運人未按照約定路線或者通常路線運輸增加票款或者運輸費用的,旅客、托運人或者收貨人可以拒絕支付增加部分的票款或者運輸費用。

  Article 292 Passenger's Remedies in Case of Carrier's Failure to Travel by Prescribed Route The passenger, consignor or consignee shall pay the fare or freightage. Where the carrier failed to carry the passenger or the cargo by the prescribed or normal route, thereby increasing the fare or freightage, the passenger, consignor or consignee may refuse to pay any increased portion thereof.

  第二節 客運合同

  Section Two Passenger Carriage Contracts

  第二百九十三條客運合同自承運人向旅客交付客票時成立,但當事人另有約定或者另有交易習慣的除外。

  Article 293 Formation of Passenger Carriage Contract A passenger carriage contract is formed upon the carrier's delivery of the passenger ticket to the passenger, except otherwise agreed by the parties or provided by the relevant usage.

  第二百九十四條旅客應當持有效客票乘運。旅客無票乘運、超程乘運、越級乘運或者持失效客票乘運的,應當補交票款,承運人可以按照規定加收票款。旅客不交付票款的,承運人可以拒絕運輸。

  Article 294 Carrier's Remedies in Case of Passenger's Failure to Pay Fare The passenger shall board the mode of transportation with a valid passenger ticket. If the passenger boards without a ticket, travels beyond the prescribed destination, boards a class higher than the prescribed class, or boards with an expired ticket, he shall pay the fare retroactively, and the carrier may charge additional fare in accordance with the relevant stipulations. Where the passenger fails to pay the fare, the carrier may refuse to carry.

  第二百九十五條旅客因自己的原因不能按照客票記載的時間乘坐的,應當在約定的時間內辦理退票或者變更手續。逾期辦理的,承運人可以不退票款,并不再承擔運輸義務。

  Article 295 Passenger's Failure to Board on Time Where the passenger is unable to board the mode of transportation at the time prescribed on the passenger ticket due to any reason attributable to himself, he shall carry out the formality for ticket refund or reschedule within the prescribed period. Where the passenger delays in carrying out the relevant formality, the carrier may refuse to refund the fare, and is no longer obligated to carry such passenger.

  第二百九十六條旅客在運輸中應當按照約定的限量攜帶行李。超過限量攜帶行李的,應當辦理托運手續。

  Article 296 Carry-on Luggage In the course of carriage, the passenger's carry-on luggage shall be within the prescribed limit. Where his luggage exceeds the prescribed limit on carry-on luggage, the additional luggage shall be checked in.

  第二百九十七條旅客不得隨身攜帶或者在行李中夾帶易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蝕性、有放射性以及有可能危及運輸工具上人身和財產安全的危險物品或者其他違禁物品。

  Article 297 Boarding with Prohibited Item The passenger may not carry in person, or place in his luggage, any hazardous material which is flammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, or radioactive, etc., or possibly endangers people or property on board, or an otherwise prohibited item.

  旅客違反前款規定的,承運人可以將違禁物品卸下、銷毀或者送交有關部門。旅客堅持攜帶或者夾帶違禁物品的,承運人應當拒絕運輸。

  Where the passenger violates the previous paragraph, the carrier may unload, destroy or turn over to the relevant authority the prohibited item. Where the passenger insists on carrying in person or placing in his luggage the prohibited item, the carrier shall refuse to carry.

  第二百九十八條承運人應當向旅客及時告知有關不能正常運輸的重要事由和安全運輸應當注意的事項。

  Article 298 Carrier's Obligation to Inform The carrier shall timely inform the passenger of any major cause preventing it from normal carriage, as well as precautions relating to transportation safety.

  第二百九十九條承運人應當按照客票載明的時間和班次運輸旅客。承運人遲延運輸的,應當根據旅客的要求安排改乘其他班次或者退票。

  Article 299 Passenger's Remedies in Case of Delay The carrier shall carry the passenger according to the time and carrier number prescribed on the passenger ticket. Where the carrier delays in carriage, it shall, upon request by the passenger, either reschedule or refund the fare.

  第三百條承運人擅自變更運輸工具而降低服務標準的,應當根據旅客的要求退票或者減收票款;提高服務標準的,不應當加收票款。

  Article 300 Passenger's Remedies in Case of Unilateral Change of Mode of Transportation by Carrier Where the carrier unilaterally changed the mode of transportation, thereby lowering the standard of service, it shall, upon request by the passenger, refund or reduce the fare; where the service standard is enhanced as a result, no additional fare shall be charged.

  第三百零一條承運人在運輸過程中,應當盡力救助患有急病、分娩、遇險的旅客。

  Article 301 Carrier's Obligation to Assist Passenger In the course of carriage, the carrier shall use its best effort to assist any passenger who has a medical emergency, is in labor or encounters a dangerous situation.

  第三百零二條承運人應當對運輸過程中旅客的傷亡承擔損害賠償責任,但傷亡是旅客自身健康原因造成的或者承運人證明傷亡是旅客故意、重大過失造成的除外。

  Article 302 Carrier Liable for Injury of Passenger; Exceptions The carrier shall be liable for damages in case of injury or death of the passenger in the course of carriage, except where such injury or death was attributable to the passenger's own health, or the carrier has established that such injury or death was caused by the passenger's intentional misconduct or gross negligence.

  前款規定適用于按照規定免票、持優待票或者經承運人許可搭乘的無票旅客。

  The provisions in the previous paragraph apply to a passenger who is exempted from buying a ticket or holds a discount ticket pursuant to the relevant stipulations, or who is permitted by the carrier to board without a ticket.

  第三百零三條在運輸過程中旅客自帶物品毀損、滅失,承運人有過錯的,應當承擔損害賠償責任。

  Article 303 Provisions Governing Loss of Passenger's Luggage Where the passenger's carry-on luggage was damaged or lost in the course of carriage, the carrier shall be liable for damages if it was at fault.

  旅客托運的行李毀損、滅失的,適用貨物運輸的有關規定。

  Where the passenger's check-in luggage was damaged or lost, the relevant provisions governing cargo carriage apply.

  第三節 貨運合同

  Section Three Cargo Carriage Contracts

  第三百零四條托運人辦理貨物運輸,應當向承運人準確表明收貨人的名稱或者姓名或者憑指示的收貨人,貨物的名稱、性質、重量、數量,收貨地點等有關貨物運輸的必要情況。

  Article 304 Consignor's Obligation to Inform; Liability for Misrepresentation In consigning its cargo, the consignor shall correctly provide the carrier with the name of the consignee or the consignee to whose order the cargo is deliverable, as well as any necessary information relating to carriage of the cargo, such as the name, nature, weight, and quantity of the cargo and the place for taking delivery thereof.

  因托運人申報不實或者遺漏重要情況,造成承運人損失的,托運人應當承擔損害賠償責任。

  Where the carrier sustains any loss due to the consignor's provision of false information or omission of any material information, the consignor shall be liable for damages.

  第三百零五條貨物運輸需要辦理審批、檢驗等手續的,托運人應當將辦理完有關手續的文件提交承運人。

  Article 305 Certain Cargo Carriage Subject to Approval Where carriage of the cargo is subject to any procedure such as approval or inspection, etc., the consignor shall submit to the carrier the relevant documents evidencing completion of such procedure.

  第三百零六條托運人應當按照約定的方式包裝貨物。對包裝方式沒有約定或者約定不明確的,適用本法第一百五十六條的規定。

  Article 306 Packing of Cargo in Prescribed Manner The consignor shall pack the cargo in the prescribed manner. Where a packing method was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, Article 156 hereof applies.

  托運人違反前款規定的,承運人可以拒絕運輸。

  Where the consignor violates the previous paragraph, the carrier may refuse to carry.

  第三百零七條托運人托運易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蝕性、有放射性等危險物品的,應當按照國家有關危險物品運輸的規定對危險物品妥善包裝,作出危險物標志和標簽,并將有關危險物品的名稱、性質和防范措施的書面材料提交承運人。

  Article 307 Carriage of Hazardous Materials In consigning any hazardous material which is inflammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, or radioactive, etc., the consignor shall, in accordance with the stipulations of the state governing the carriage of hazardous materials, properly pack the hazardous material and affix thereon applicable signs and labels for hazardous materials, and shall submit its name and nature as well as related precautionary measures to the carrier in writing.

  托運人違反前款規定的,承運人可以拒絕運輸,也可以采取相應措施以避免損失的發生,因此產生的費用由托運人承擔。

  If the consignor violates the previous paragraph, the carrier may refuse to carry, and may also take the appropriate measures to prevent loss at the consignor's expense.

  第三百零八條在承運人將貨物交付收貨人之前,托運人可以要求承運人中止運輸、返還貨物、變更到達地或者將貨物交給其他收貨人,但應當賠償承運人因此受到的損失。

  Article 308 Consignor's Right of Disposal Prior to Delivery Prior to carrier's delivery of the cargo to the consignee, the consignor may require the carrier to suspend the carriage, return the cargo, change the destination or deliver the cargo to another consignee, provided that it shall indemnify the carrier for any loss it sustains as a result.

  第三百零九條貨物運輸到達后,承運人知道收貨人的,應當及時通知收貨人,收貨人應當及時提貨。收貨人逾期提貨的,應當向承運人支付保管費等費用。

  Article 309 Taking Delivery of Cargo by Consignee Upon arrival of the cargo, if the carrier knows of the consignee, it shall timely notify the consignee, who shall timely take delivery. Where the consignee delays in taking delivery, it shall pay expenses such as safekeeping fee, etc. to the carrier.

  第三百一十條收貨人提貨時應當按照約定的期限檢驗貨物。對檢驗貨物的期限沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,應當在合理期限內檢驗貨物。收貨人在約定的期限或者合理期限內對貨物的數量、毀損等未提出異議的,視為承運人已經按照運輸單證的記載交付的初步證據。

  Article 310 Inspection by Consignee; Effect of Failure to Inspect Upon taking delivery of the cargo, the consignee shall inspect the cargo at the prescribed time. Where the time for inspection was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, the consignee shall inspect the cargo within a reasonable time. The consignee's failure to raise any objection concerning the quantity of, or any damage to, the cargo within the prescribed time or within a reasonable time is deemed prima facie evidence of delivery by the carrier in compliance with the description in the transportation documents.

  第三百一十一條承運人對運輸過程中貨物的毀損、滅失承擔損害賠償責任,但承運人證明貨物的毀損、滅失是因不可抗力、貨物本身的自然性質或者合理損耗以及托運人、收貨人的過錯造成的,不承擔損害賠償責任。

  Article 311 Carrier Liable for Damage or Loss during Carriage; Exceptions The carrier is liable for damages in case of damage to or loss of the cargo in the course of carriage, provided that it is not liable for damages if it has established that such damage to or loss of the cargo was caused by force majeure, the intrinsic characteristics of the cargo, reasonable depletion, or the fault of the consignor or consignee.

  第三百一十二條貨物的毀損、滅失的賠償額,當事人有約定的,按照其約定;沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,按照交付或者應當交付時貨物到達地的市場價格計算。法律、行政法規對賠償額的計算方法和賠償限額另有規定的,依照其規定。

  Article 312 Amount of Damages in Case of Loss of Cargo Where the parties agreed on the amount of damages in case of damage to or loss of the cargo, the damages payable is the prescribed amount; if the amount of damages was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, it shall be calculated based on the prevailing market price at the destination when the cargo was or should have been delivered. Where a law or administrative regulation provides otherwise in respect of the method for calculation of damages and any limitation on damages, such provisions apply.

  第三百一十三條兩個以上承運人以同一運輸方式聯運的,與托運人訂立合同的承運人應當對全程運輸承擔責任。損失發生在某一運輸區段的,與托運人訂立合同的承運人和該區段的承運人承擔連帶責任。

  Article 313 Liabilities of Joint Carriers Using the Same Method of Transportation Where two or more carriers jointly carry the cargo using the same method of transportation, the carrier contracting with the consignor shall be responsible for the whole course of carriage. Where the loss occurred at a particular segment, the carrier contracting with the consignor and the carrier for such segment are jointly and severally liable.

  第三百一十四條貨物在運輸過程中因不可抗力滅失,未收取運費的,承運人不得要求支付運費;已收取運費的,托運人可以要求返還。

  Article 314 Freightage in Case of Force Majeure Where the cargo was lost in the course of carriage due to force majeure, if the freightage has not been collected, the carrier may not require payment thereof; if the freightage has been collected, the consignor may claim refund.

  第三百一十五條托運人或者收貨人不支付運費、保管費以及其他運輸費用的,承運人對相應的運輸貨物享有留置權,但當事人另有約定的除外。

  Article 315 Carrier's Possessory Lien in Case of Non-payment Where the consignor or consignee fails to pay the freightage, safekeeping fee and other expenses in connection with the carriage of the cargo, the carrier is entitled to a possessory lien on the corresponding portion of the cargo, except otherwise agreed by the parties.

  第三百一十六條收貨人不明或者收貨人無正當理由拒絕受領貨物的,依照本法第一百零一條的規定,承運人可以提存貨物。

  Article 316 Placing Cargo in Escrow Where the consignee is not known or refuses to take delivery of the cargo without cause, the carrier may place the cargo in escrow under Article 101 hereof.

  第四節 多式聯運合同

  Section Four Multi-modal Carriage Contract

  第三百一十七條多式聯運經營人負責履行或者組織履行多式聯運合同,對全程運輸享有承運人的權利,承擔承運人的義務。

  Article 317 Rights and Obligations of Multi-modal Carriage Operator A multi-modal carriage operator is responsible for performing, or arranging for performance of, the multi-modal carriage contract, and it enjoys the rights and assumes the obligations of a carrier throughout the course of carriage.

  第三百一十八條多式聯運經營人可以與參加多式聯運的各區段承運人就多式聯運合同的各區段運輸約定相互之間的責任,但該約定不影響多式聯運經營人對全程運輸承擔的義務。

  Article 318 Agreement between Multi-modal Carriage Operator and Segment Carriers The multi-modal carriage operator and the segment carriers may prescribe their respective duties concerning each segment, provided that the obligations of the multi-modal carriage operator with respect to the entire course of carriage are not affected by any such agreement.

  第三百一十九條多式聯運經營人收到托運人交付的貨物時,應當簽發多式聯運單據。按照托運人的要求,多式聯運單據可以是可轉讓單據,也可以是不可轉讓單據。

  Article 319 Multi-modal Carriage Document Upon receipt of the cargo delivered by the consignor, the multi-modal carriage operator shall issue thereto a multi-modal carriage document. The multi-modal carriage document may either be assignable or non-assignable as required by the consignor.

  第三百二十條因托運人托運貨物時的過錯造成多式聯運經營人損失的,即使托運人已經轉讓多式聯運單據,托運人仍然應當承擔損害賠償責任。

  Article 320 Consignor's Liability Notwithstanding Assignment of Document Where the multi-modal carriage operator sustains any loss due to the fault of the consignor in the course of consigning the cargo, the consignor shall be liable for damages notwithstanding its subsequent assignment of the multi-modal carriage document.

  第三百二十一條貨物的毀損、滅失發生于多式聯運的某一運輸區段的,多式聯運經營人的賠償責任和責任限額,適用調整該區段運輸方式的有關法律規定。貨物毀損、滅失發生的運輸區段不能確定的,依照本章規定承擔損害賠償責任。

  Article 321 Applicable Law Governing Loss of Cargo in Multi-modal Carriage Where damage to or loss of the cargo occurred within a particular segment of the course of a multi-modal carriage, the multi-modal carriage operator's liability for damages and any limitation thereon are governed by the applicable transportation law of the jurisdiction which such segment is under. Where the segment in which the cargo was damaged or lost cannot be determined, the liability for damages shall be borne in accordance with this Chapter.

  第十八章 技術合同

  Chapter Eighteen Technology Contracts

  第一節 一般規定

  Section One General Provisions

  第三百二十二條技術合同是當事人就技術開發、轉讓、咨詢或者服務訂立的確立相互之間權利和義務的合同。

  Article 322 Definition of Technology Contract A technology contract is a contract whereby the parties prescribe their rights and obligations in respect of the development or transfer of technology, or in respect of technical consulting or service.

  第三百二十三條訂立技術合同,應當有利于科學技術的進步,加速科學技術成果的轉化、應用和推廣。

  Article 323 General Requirements Concerning Technology Contract Conclusion of a technology contract shall be conducive to the advancement of science and technology, and expedite the conversion, application and dissemination of scientific and technological achievements.

  第三百二十四條技術合同的內容由當事人約定,一般包括以下條款:

  Article 324 Terms of Technology Contract; Patents Terms of a technology contract shall be prescribed by the parties, and generally include the following:

  (一)項目名稱;

  (i) project name;

  (二)標的的內容、范圍和要求;

  (ii) contents, scope and requirement of the subject matter;

  (三)履行的計劃、進度、期限、地點、地域和方式;

  (iii) the plan, schedule, period, place, territory and method of performance;

  (四)技術情報和資料的保密;

  (iv) confidentiality of technical information and materials;

  (五)風險責任的承擔;

  (v) allocation of responsibilities for risks;

  (六)技術成果的歸屬和收益的分成辦法;

  (vi) ownership of the technology and allocation of benefits accrued therefrom;

  (七)驗收標準和方法;

  (vii) standard applicable to and method of acceptance test;

  (八)價款、報酬或者使用費及其支付方式;

  (viii)price, remuneration or licensing fee and the method of payment;

  (九)違約金或者損失賠償的計算方法;

  (ix) liquidated damages or method for calculation of damages;

  (十)解決爭議的方法;

  (x) method of dispute resolution;

  (十一)名詞和術語的解釋。

  (xi) definition of terms and phrases.

  與履行合同有關的技術背景資料、可行性論證和技術評價報告、項目任務書和計劃書、技術標準、技術規范、原始設計和工藝文件,以及其他技術文檔,按照當事人的約定可以作為合同的組成部分。

  The parties may agree to include the following materials relating to the performance of the contract as an integral part thereof: technical background information, feasibility studies and technical evaluation report, project task matrix and project plan, technical standard, technical specifications, original design and technique documents, as well as other technical documentation.

  技術合同涉及專利的,應當注明發明創造的名稱、專利申請人和專利權人、申請日期、申請號、專利號以及專利權的有效期限。

  Where the technology contract involves any patent, it shall set forth the name of the invention/innovation, the patent applicant and the patentee, the date of application, the application number, patent number and the term of the patent.

  第三百二十五條技術合同價款、報酬或者使用費的支付方式由當事人約定,可以采取一次總算、一次總付或者一次總算、分期支付,也可以采取提成支付或者提成支付附加預付入門費的方式。

  Article 325 Payment Method; Royalty The method for payment of the price, remuneration or licensing fee under a technology contract shall be prescribed by the parties, who may prescribe lump-sum payment based on one-time calculation or installment payment based on one-time calculation, and may also prescribe royalty payment or royalty payment plus advance payment of initial fee.

  約定提成支付的,可以按照產品價格、實施專利和使用技術秘密后新增的產值、利潤或者產品銷售額的一定比例提成,也可以按照約定的其他方式計算。提成支付的比例可以采取固定比例、逐年遞增比例或者逐年遞減比例。

  Where a royalty payment method is prescribed, the royalty may be calculated as a percentage of the product price, any increase in product value resulting from exploitation of the patent or use of the technical secret, profit, or product sales, and may also be calculated by any other method prescribed by the parties. The royalty rate may be fixed or subject to annual increase or decrease.

  約定提成支付的,當事人應當在合同中約定查閱有關會計帳目的辦法。

  Where a royalty payment is prescribed, the parties shall prescribe in the contract a method for inspection of the relevant accounting books.

  第三百二十六條職務技術成果的使用權、轉讓權屬于法人或者其他組織的,法人或者其他組織可以就該項職務技術成果訂立技術合同。法人或者其他組織應當從使用和轉讓該項職務技術成果所取得的收益中提取一定比例,對完成該項職務技術成果的個人給予獎勵或者報酬。法人或者其他組織訂立技術合同轉讓職務技術成果時,職務技術成果的完成人享有以同等條件優先受讓的權利。

  Article 326 Employee-developed Technology; Definition Where the right to use and the right to transfer employee-developed technology belong to a legal person or an organization of any other nature, the legal person or organization may enter into a technology contract in respect of such employee-developed technology. The legal person or organization shall reward or remunerate the individual(s) who developed the technology with a percentage of the benefits accrued from the use and transfer of the employee-developed technology. Where the legal person or organization is to enter into a technology contract for the transfer of the employee-developed technology, the employee-developer has the right of first refusal under the same conditions.

  職務技術成果是執行法人或者其他組織的工作任務,或者主要是利用法人或者其他組織的物質技術條件所完成的技術成果。

  An employee-developed technology is a technology developed in the course of completing a task assigned by a legal person or an organization of any other nature, or developed by primarily utilizing the material and technical resources thereof.

  第三百二十七條非職務技術成果的使用權、轉讓權屬于完成技術成果的個人,完成技術成果的個人可以就該項非職務技術成果訂立技術合同。

  Article 327 Non-employee-developed Technology The right to use and the right to transfer non-employee-developed technology belong to the individual developer, who may enter into a technology contract in respect thereof.

  第三百二十八條完成技術成果的個人有在有關技術成果文件上寫明自己是技術成果完成者的權利和取得榮譽證書、獎勵的權利。

  Article 328 Individual's Rights with Respect to Technology Developed Thereby The individual who developed the technology is entitled to identify himself as the developer in the documentation related thereto, and to receive honor certificate and reward.

  第三百二十九條非法壟斷技術、妨礙技術進步或者侵害他人技術成果的技術合同無效。

  Article 329 Invalidity of Technology-monopolizing and Infringing Contract A technology contract which illegally monopolizes technology, impairs technological advancement or infringes on the technology of a third person is invalid.

  第二節 技術開發合同

  Section Two Technology Development Contract

  第三百三十條技術開發合同是指當事人之間就新技術、新產品、新工藝或者新材料及其系統的研究開發所訂立的合同。

  Article 330 Definition of Technology Development Contract A technology development contract is a contract concluded in respect of the development of a new technology, product, technique or material and the associated system.

  技術開發合同包括委托開發合同和合作開發合同。

  Technology development contracts include commissioned development contracts and cooperative development contracts.

  技術開發合同應當采用書面形式。

  A technology development contract shall be in writing.

  當事人之間就具有產業應用價值的科技成果實施轉化訂立的合同,參照技術開發合同的規定。

  A contract on the conversion of a scientific achievement with potential for industrial application is governed by reference to the provisions applicable to technology development contracts.

  第三百三十一條委托開發合同的委托人應當按照約定支付研究開發經費和報酬;

  Article 331 Obligations of Commissioning Party The commissioning party under a commissioned development contract shall, in accordance with the contract, provide development funds and pay remuneration; supply technical materials and original data; complete its tasks of cooperation; and accept the developed technology.

  提供技術資料、原始數據;完成協作事項;接受研究開發成果。

  Article 332 Obligations of Developer in Commissioned Development The developer under a commissioned development contract shall, in accordance with the contract, prepare and implement the development plan; use development funds in a reasonable manner; timely complete the development and deliver the developed technology, as well as provide the relevant technical materials and necessary technical guidance so as to help the commissioning party master the developed technology.

  第三百三十二條委托開發合同的研究開發人應當按照約定制定和實施研究開發計劃;合理使用研究開發經費;按期完成研究開發工作,交付研究開發成果,提供有關的技術資料和必要的技術指導,幫助委托人掌握研究開發成果。

  Article 333 Commissioning Party's Breach Where the commissioning party breached the contract, thereby causing stoppage, delay or failure of the development, it shall be liable for breach of contract.

  第三百三十三條委托人違反約定造成研究開發工作停滯、延誤或者失敗的,應當承擔違約責任。

  Article 334 Developer's Breach

  第三百三十四條研究開發人違反約定造成研究開發工作停滯、延誤或者失敗的,應當承擔違約責任。

  Where the developer breached the contract, thereby causing stoppage, delay or failure of the development, it shall be liable for breach of contract.

  第三百三十五條合作開發合同的當事人應當按照約定進行投資,包括以技術進行投資;分工參與研究開發工作;協作配合研究開發工作。

  Article 335 Obligations of Parties in Cooperative Development Parties to a cooperative development contract shall, in accordance with the contract, make investment, including investment in the form of technology; participate in the development by performing their respective tasks; and cooperate with each other in the development.

  第三百三十六條合作開發合同的當事人違反約定造成研究開發工作停滯、延誤或者失敗的,應當承擔違約責任。

  Article 336 Breach of Cooperative Contract Where a party to a cooperative development contract breached the contract, thereby causing stoppage, delay or failure of the development, it shall be liable for breach of contract.

  第三百三十七條因作為技術開發合同標的的技術已經由他人公開,致使技術開發合同的履行沒有意義的,當事人可以解除合同。

  Article 337 Termination of Contract in Case Technology Becomes Public Where the technology which is the subject matter of a technology development contract was made public by a third person, thereby rendering performance of the technology development contract no longer meaningful, the parties may terminate the contract.

  第三百三十八條在技術開發合同履行過程中,因出現無法克服的技術困難,致使研究開發失敗或者部分失敗的,該風險責任由當事人約定。沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,風險責任由當事人合理分擔。

  Article 338 Allocation of Responsibility for Risk of Failure; Duty to Inform upon Discovery of Circumstance Which May Lead to Failure If in the course of implementing a technology development contract, the development failed in whole or in part due to any insurmountable technical difficulty, allocation of the responsibility for such risk shall be prescribed by the parties. Where the allocation of responsibility for such risk was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, it shall be shared by the parties in a reasonable manner.

  當事人一方發現前款規定的可能致使研究開發失敗或者部分失敗的情形時,應當及時通知另一方并采取適當措施減少損失。沒有及時通知并采取適當措施,致使損失擴大的,應當就擴大的損失承擔責任。

  Where a party discovers any circumstance which may lead to the failure of the development in whole or in part as described in the previous paragraph, it shall timely notify the other party and take the appropriate measures to mitigate loss; where the party failed to timely notify the other party and take the appropriate measures, thereby causing further loss, it shall be liable for such further loss.

  第三百三十九條委托開發完成的發明創造,除當事人另有約定的以外,申請專利的權利屬于研究開發人。研究開發人取得專利權的,委托人可以免費實施該專利。

  Article 339 Right to Patent Application in Commissioned Development Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the right to apply for patent on the invention/innovation resulting from a commissioned development belongs to the developer. Where the developer is granted a patent, the commissioning party may exploit such patent free of charge.

  研究開發人轉讓專利申請權的,委托人享有以同等條件優先受讓的權利。

  Where the developer is to assign the right to apply for patent on the invention/innovation resulting from the commissioned development, the commissioning party has the right of first refusal under the same conditions.

  第三百四十條合作開發完成的發明創造,除當事人另有約定的以外,申請專利的權利屬于合作開發的當事人共有。當事人一方轉讓其共有的專利申請權的,其他各方享有以同等條件優先受讓的權利。

  Article 340 Right to Patent Application in Cooperative Development Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the right to apply for patent on the invention/innovation resulting from a cooperative development belongs to the parties therein jointly. Where a party is to assign its joint patent application right, the other parties have the right of first refusal under the same conditions.

  合作開發的當事人一方聲明放棄其共有的專利申請權的,可以由另一方單獨申請或者由其他各方共同申請。申請人取得專利權的,放棄專利申請權的一方可以免費實施該專利。

  Where a party in the cooperative development declares a waiver of its joint patent application right, the other party may apply by itself, or the other parties may jointly apply, as the case may be. Where a patent is granted on the invention/innovation, the party waiving its patent application right may exploit such patent free of charge.

  合作開發的當事人一方不同意申請專利的,另一方或者其他各方不得申請專利。

  If a party in the cooperative development does not consent to the application for patent, the other party or parties may not apply for patent.

  第三百四十一條委托開發或者合作開發完成的技術秘密成果的使用權、轉讓權以及利益的分配辦法,由當事人約定。沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,當事人均有使用和轉讓的權利,但委托開發的研究開發人不得在向委托人交付研究開發成果之前,將研究開發成果轉讓給第三人。

  Article 341 Right to Use or Transfer Technical Secret The right to use and transfer the technical secret resulting from a commissioned or cooperative development, and the method for allocation of benefits accrued therefrom shall be prescribed by the parties. Where such matters were not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, all of the parties are entitled to use and transfer the technology, provided that the developer in a commissioned development may not transfer the technology to a third person before it delivers the technology to the commissioning party.

  第三節 技術轉讓合同

  Section Three Technology Transfer Contracts

  第三百四十二條技術轉讓合同包括專利權轉讓、專利申請權轉讓、技術秘密轉讓、專利實施許可合同。

  Article 342 Types of Technology Transfer Contract Technology transfer contracts include contracts for the assignment of patent, assignment of patent application right, transfer of technical secrets, and patent licensing.

  技術轉讓合同應當采用書面形式。

  A technology transfer contract shall be in writing.

  第三百四十三條技術轉讓合同可以約定讓與人和受讓人實施專利或者使用技術秘密的范圍,但不得限制技術競爭和技術發展。

  Article 343 Limit on Scope of Implementation May Not Restrict Competition A technology transfer contract may set forth the scope of exploitation of the patent or the use of the technical secret by the transferor and the transferee, provided that it may not restrict technological competition and technological development.

  第三百四十四條專利實施許可合同只在該專利權的存續期間內有效。專利權有效期限屆滿或者專利權被宣布無效的,專利權人不得就該專利與他人訂立專利實施許可合同。

  Article 344 Term of Patent Licensing Contract May Not Exceed Patent Term A patent licensing contract is only valid during the term of the patent. Where the term of the patent expires or the patent is invalidated, the patentee may not enter into a patent licensing contract with any other person in respect thereof.

  第三百四十五條專利實施許可合同的讓與人應當按照約定許可受讓人實施專利,交付實施專利有關的技術資料,提供必要的技術指導。

  Article 345 Obligations of Patent Licensor The transferor under a patent licensing contract shall, in accordance with the contract, license the patent to the transferee, deliver the technical materials related to the exploitation of the patent, and provide the necessary technical guidance.

  第三百四十六條專利實施許可合同的受讓人應當按照約定實施專利,不得許可約定以外的第三人實施該專利;并按照約定支付使用費。

  Article 346 Obligations of Patent Licensee The transferee under a patent licensing contract shall exploit the patent in accordance with the contract and may not license the patent to any third person except as provided in the contract; and shall pay the licensing fee in accordance with the contract.

  第三百四十七條技術秘密轉讓合同的讓與人應當按照約定提供技術資料,進行技術指導,保證技術的實用性、可靠性,承擔保密義務。

  Article 347 Obligations of Transferor of Technical Secret The transferor under a contract for transfer of technical secret shall, in accordance with the contract, supply the technical materials, provide technical guidance, and warrant the practical applicability and reliability of the technology, and shall abide by its confidentiality obligations.

  第三百四十八條技術秘密轉讓合同的受讓人應當按照約定使用技術,支付使用費,承擔保密義務。

  Article 348 Obligations of Transferee of Technical Secret The transferee under a contract for transfer of technical secret shall, in accordance with the contract, use the technology, pay the licensing fee and abide by its confidentiality obligations.

  第三百四十九條技術轉讓合同的讓與人應當保證自己是所提供的技術的合法擁有者,并保證所提供的技術完整、無誤、有效,能夠達到約定的目標。

  Article 349 Warranty of Title, Completeness, Correctness and Effectiveness The transferor under a technology transfer contract shall warrant that it is the lawful owner of the technology provided, and shall warrant that the technology provided is complete, free from error, effective, and capable of achieving the prescribed goals.

  第三百五十條技術轉讓合同的受讓人應當按照約定的范圍和期限,對讓與人提供的技術中尚未公開的秘密部分,承擔保密義務。

  Article 350 Transferee's Confidentiality Obligations The transferee under a technology transfer contract shall, to the prescribed extent and within the prescribed period, abide by its confidentiality obligations in respect of the non-public and secret portion of the technology provided by the transferor.

  第三百五十一條讓與人未按照約定轉讓技術的,應當返還部分或者全部使用費,并應當承擔違約責任;實施專利或者使用技術秘密超越約定的范圍的,違反約定擅自許可第三人實施該項專利或者使用該項技術秘密的,應當停止違約行為,承擔違約責任;違反約定的保密義務的,應當承擔違約責任。

  Article 351 Transferor's Liabilities for Breach Where the transferor failed to transfer technology in accordance with the contract, it shall refund the licensing fee in part or in whole, and shall be liable for breach of contract; where the transferor exploited the patent or used the technical secret beyond the prescribed scope, or unilaterally allowed the patent to be exploited or the technical secret to be used by a third person in breach of the contract, it shall cease the breach and be liable for breach of contract; where the transferor breached any prescribed confidentiality obligation, it shall be liable for breach of contract.

  第三百五十二條受讓人未按照約定支付使用費的,應當補交使用費并按照約定支付違約金;不補交使用費或者支付違約金的,應當停止實施專利或者使用技術秘密,交還技術資料,承擔違約責任;實施專利或者使用技術秘密超越約定的范圍的,未經讓與人同意擅自許可第三人實施該專利或者使用該技術秘密的,應當停止違約行為,承擔違約責任;違反約定的保密義務的,應當承擔違約責任。

  Article 352 Transferee's Liabilities for Breach Where the transferee failed to pay the prescribed licensing fee, it shall pay the overdue licensing fee and pay liquidated damages in accordance with the contract; where it failed to pay the overdue licensing fee and liquidated damages, it shall cease exploitation of the patent or use of the technical secret, return the technical materials, and be liable for breach of contract; where the transferee exploited the patent or used the technical secret beyond the prescribed scope, or allowed the patent to be exploited or the technical secret to be used by a third person without consent by the transferor in breach of the contract, it shall cease the breach and be liable for breach of contract; where the transferee breached any prescribed confidentiality obligation, it shall be liable for breach of contract.

  第三百五十三條受讓人按照約定實施專利、使用技術秘密侵害他人合法權益的,由讓與人承擔責任,但當事人另有約定的除外。

  Article 353 Transferor Liable in Case of Infringement; Exception Where the exploitation of the patent or the use of the technical secret by the transferee in accordance with the contract infringes on the lawful interests of any other person, the liability shall be borne by the transferor, except otherwise agreed by the parties.

  第三百五十四條當事人可以按照互利的原則,在技術轉讓合同中約定實施專利、使用技術秘密后續改進的技術成果的分享辦法。沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,一方后續改進的技術成果,其他各方無權分享。

  Article 354 Sharing of Improvement The parties may, on the basis of mutual benefit, provide in the technology transfer contract for the method of sharing any subsequent improvement resulting from the exploitation of the patent or use of the technical secret. If such method was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, neither party is entitled to share any subsequent improvement made by the other party.

  第三百五十五條法律、行政法規對技術進出口合同或者專利、專利申請合同另有規定的,依照其規定。

  Article 355 Applicability of Other Laws or Administrative Regulations Where the relevant laws or administrative regulations provide otherwise in respect of technology import/export contracts or in respect of patent contracts or contracts for patent application, such provisions prevail.

  第四節 技術咨詢合同和技術服務合同

  Section Four Technical Consulting Contracts and Technical Service Contracts

  第三百五十六條技術咨詢合同包括就特定技術項目提供可行性論證、技術預測、專題技術調查、分析評價報告等合同。

  Article 356 Definitions of Technical Consulting and Technical Service Contracts Technical consulting contracts include contracts for provision of feasibility studies, technical forecast, specialized technical investigation, and analysis and evaluation report, etc. in respect of a particular technical project.

  技術服務合同是指當事人一方以技術知識為另一方解決特定技術問題所訂立的合同,不包括建設工程合同和承攬合同。

  A technical service contract means a contract whereby one party solves a particular technical problem for the other party by utilizing its technical knowledge, excluding a contract for construction project or a contract of hired work.

  第三百五十七條技術咨詢合同的委托人應當按照約定闡明咨詢的問題,提供技術背景材料及有關技術資料、數據;接受受托人的工作成果,支付報酬。

  Article 357 Obligations of Client under Technical Consulting Contract The client under a technical consulting contract shall, in accordance with the contract, describe the problem on which consultancy is sought, provide the technical background information as well as related technical materials and data; and accept the work product from, and pay the remuneration to, the consultant.

  第三百五十八條技術咨詢合同的受托人應當按照約定的期限完成咨詢報告或者解答問題;提出的咨詢報告應當達到約定的要求。

  Article 358 Obligations of Consultant under Technical Consulting Contract The consultant under a technical consulting contract shall complete the consulting report or answer the question within the prescribed period; the consulting report submitted shall comply with the requirements set forth in the contract.

  第三百五十九條技術咨詢合同的委托人未按照約定提供必要的資料和數據,影響工作進度和質量,不接受或者逾期接受工作成果的,支付的報酬不得追回,未支付的報酬應當支付。

  Article 359 Remedies for Breach; Consultant Not Liable for Loss Where the client under a technical consulting contract failed to provide the necessary materials and data in accordance with the contract, thereby impairing the progress and quality of the work, or failed to accept or delayed in accepting the work product, it may not claim refund of the remuneration paid, and shall pay any unpaid remuneration.

  技術咨詢合同的受托人未按期提出咨詢報告或者提出的咨詢報告不符合約定的,應當承擔減收或者免收報酬等違約責任。

  Where the consultant under the technical consulting contract failed to provide the consulting report within the prescribed period or the consulting report submitted does not comply with the contract, it shall be liable for breach of contract by way of reducing or foregoing the remuneration, etc.

  技術咨詢合同的委托人按照受托人符合約定要求的咨詢報告和意見作出決策所造成的損失,由委托人承擔,但當事人另有約定的除外。

  The client under a technical consulting contract shall bear the loss resulting from any decision made by it based on the complying consulting report and opinion provided by the consultant, except otherwise agreed by the parties.

  第三百六十條技術服務合同的委托人應當按照約定提供工作條件,完成配合事項;接受工作成果并支付報酬。

  Article 360 Obligations of Client under Technical Service Contract The client under a technical service contract shall, in accordance with the contract, provide the working conditions and complete its tasks of cooperation; accept the work product and pay the remuneration.

  第三百六十一條技術服務合同的受托人應當按照約定完成服務項目,解決技術問題,保證工作質量,并傳授解決技術問題的知識。

  Article 361 Obligations of Service Provider under Technical Service Contract The service provider under a technical service contract shall, in accordance with the contract, complete the services, solve the technical problem, warrant the quality of its work, and communicate the knowledge for solving the technical problem.

  第三百六十二條技術服務合同的委托人不履行合同義務或者履行合同義務不符合約定,影響工作進度和質量,不接受或者逾期接受工作成果的,支付的報酬不得追回,未支付的報酬應當支付。

  Article 362 Remedies for Breach Where the client under a technical service contract failed to perform its contractual obligations, or rendered non-conforming performance, thereby impairing the progress and quality of the work, or failed to accept or delayed in accepting the work product, it may not claim refund of the remuneration paid, and shall pay any unpaid remuneration.

  技術服務合同的受托人未按照合同約定完成服務工作的,應當承擔免收報酬等違約責任。

  Where the service provider under a technical service contract failed to complete services in accordance with the contract, it shall be liable for breach of contract by way of forgoing the remuneration, etc.

  第三百六十三條在技術咨詢合同、技術服務合同履行過程中,受托人利用委托人提供的技術資料和工作條件完成的新的技術成果,屬于受托人。委托人利用受托人的工作成果完成的新的技術成果,屬于委托人。當事人另有約定的,按照其約定。

  Article 363 Ownership of New Technology in Connection with Technical Consulting/Service Contract In the course of performing a technical consulting contract or a technical service contract, any new technology developed by the consultant or service provider utilizing the technical materials and working conditions provided by the client belongs to the consultant or service provider. Any new technology developed by the client utilizing the work product provided by the consultant or service provider belongs to the client. However, if the parties agree otherwise in the contract, such provision prevails.

  第三百六十四條法律、行政法規對技術中介合同、技術培訓合同另有規定的,依照其規定。

  Article 364 Technology Intermediary Service or Technical Training Where a relevant law or administrative regulation provides otherwise in respect of technology intermediary service contracts or technical training contracts, such provisions prevail.

  第十九章 保管合同

  Chapter Nineteen: Safekeeping Contracts

  第三百六十五條保管合同是保管人保管寄存人交付的保管物,并返還該物的合同。

  Article 365 Definition of Safekeeping Contract A safekeeping contract is a contract whereby the depository keeps the deposit delivered by the depositor, and eventually returns it thereto.

  第三百六十六條寄存人應當按照約定向保管人支付保管費。

  Article 366 Safekeeping Fee The depositor shall pay the safekeeping fee to the depository in accordance with the contract.

  當事人對保管費沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,保管是無償的。

  Where the safekeeping fee was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, the safekeeping is gratuitous.

  第三百六十七條保管合同自保管物交付時成立,但當事人另有約定的除外。

  Article 367 Formation of Safekeeping Contract A safekeeping contract is formed upon delivery of the deposit, except otherwise agreed by the parties.

  第三百六十八條寄存人向保管人交付保管物的,保管人應當給付保管憑證,但另有交易習慣的除外。

  Article 368 Deposit Voucher Upon the depositor's delivery of the deposit to the depository, the depository shall issue a deposit voucher thereto, except otherwise provided by the relevant usage.

  第三百六十九條保管人應當妥善保管保管物。

  Article 369 Place and Manner of Safekeeping The depository shall keep the deposit with due care.

  當事人可以約定保管場所或者方法。除緊急情況或者為了維護寄存人利益的以外,不得擅自改變保管場所或者方法。

  The parties may prescribe the place and manner of safekeeping. The place and manner of safekeeping may not be changed without authorization, except in an emergency situation or for the purpose of safeguarding the depositor's interests.

  第三百七十條寄存人交付的保管物有瑕疵或者按照保管物的性質需要采取特殊保管措施的,寄存人應當將有關情況告知保管人。寄存人未告知,致使保管物受損失的,保管人不承擔損害賠償責任;保管人因此受損失的,除保管人知道或者應當知道并且未采取補救措施的以外,寄存人應當承擔損害賠償責任。

  Article 370 Depositor's Obligation to Inform Where the deposit delivered by the depositor has defects or requires special safekeeping measures in light of its nature, the depositor shall inform the depository of the relevant situation. Where the depositor failed to inform, thereby causing damage to the deposit, the depository is not liable for damages; where the depository sustains any loss as a result, the depositor shall be liable for damages, except where the depository was, or should have been, aware of the situation and failed to take remedial measures.

  第三百七十一條保管人不得將保管物轉交第三人保管,但當事人另有約定的除外。

  Article 371 Delegation of Safekeeping Prohibited Except with Prior Agreement The depository may not delegate safekeeping of the deposit to a third person, except otherwise agreed by the parties.

  保管人違反前款規定,將保管物轉交第三人保管,對保管物造成損失的,應當承擔損害賠償責任。

  Where the depository delegated safekeeping of the deposit to a third person in violation of the previous paragraph, thereby causing damage to the deposit, the depository shall be liable for damages.

  第三百七十二條保管人不得使用或者許可第三人使用保管物,但當事人另有約定的除外。

  Article 372 Use of Deposit Prohibited Except with Prior Agreement The depository may not use, or allow to be used, the deposit, except otherwise agreed by the parties.

  第三百七十三條第三人對保管物主張權利的,除依法對保管物采取保全或者執行的以外,保管人應當履行向寄存人返還保管物的義務。

  Article 373 Depository's Obligations in Case of Third Party Claim Where a third person makes a claim on the deposit, the depository shall perform its obligation of returning the deposit to the depositor, except where an order of preservation or enforcement is carried out in respect of the deposit in accordance with the law.

  第三人對保管人提起訴訟或者對保管物申請扣押的,保管人應當及時通知寄存人。

  Where a third person has initiated a suit against the depository or has applied for attachment of the deposit, the depository shall timely notify the depositor.

  第三百七十四條保管期間,因保管人保管不善造成保管物毀損、滅失的,保管人應當承擔損害賠償責任,但保管是無償的,保管人證明自己沒有重大過失的,不承擔損害賠償責任。

  Article 374 Depository Liable in Case of Damage or Loss; Exception If the deposit was damaged or lost due to improper safekeeping by the depository during the deposit period, the depository shall be liable for damages, provided that if the safekeeping is gratuitous, and the depository has established that it was without gross negligence, it is not liable for damages.

  第三百七十五條寄存人寄存貨幣、有價證券或者其他貴重物品的,應當向保管人聲明,由保管人驗收或者封存。寄存人未聲明的,該物品毀損、滅失后,保管人可以按照一般物品予以賠償。

  Article 375 Depositor's Obligation to Declare Valuable Deposit Where the depositor is to deposit money, securities, or any other valuable item for safekeeping, it shall make a declaration to the depository on such item, which shall be inspected or sealed by the depository. Where the depositor failed to make such declaration, upon damage to or loss of the deposit, the depository may indemnify the depositor to the extent of the value of a regular item.

  第三百七十六條寄存人可以隨時領取保管物。

  Article 376 Retrieval of Deposit The depositor may retrieve the deposit at any time.

  當事人對保管期間沒有約定或者約定不明確的,保管人可以隨時要求寄存人領取保管物;約定保管期間的,保管人無特別事由,不得要求寄存人提前領取保管物。

  Where a deposit period was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, the depository may require the depositor to retrieve the deposit at any time; where a deposit period was prescribed, absent special cause, the depository may not require the depositor to retrieve the deposit before the end of the deposit period.

  第三百七十七條保管期間屆滿或者寄存人提前領取保管物的,保管人應當將原物及其孳息歸還寄存人。

  Article 377 Depository's Obligation to Return Deposit and Fruit At the end of the deposit period, or if the depositor retrieves the deposit before the end of the deposit period, the depository shall return the original item together with any fruit thereof to the depositor.

  第三百七十八條保管人保管貨幣的,可以返還相同種類、數量的貨幣。保管其他可替代物的,可以按照約定返還相同種類、品質、數量的物品。

  Article 378 Safekeeping of Fungible Items Where the depository keeps money deposit, it may return money of the same type and quantity. Where the depository keeps any other fungible item, it may return any item of the same type, quality and quantity in accordance with the contract.

  第三百七十九條有償的保管合同,寄存人應當按照約定的期限向保管人支付保管費。

  Article 379 Time of Payment of Safekeeping Fee Under a safekeeping contract for value, the depositor shall pay to the depository the safekeeping fee at the prescribed time.

  當事人對支付期限沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,應當在領取保管物的同時支付。

  Where the time of payment of the safekeeping fee was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, the safekeeping fee shall be paid at the same time the deposit is retrieved.

  第三百八十條寄存人未按照約定支付保管費以及其他費用的,保管人對保管物享有留置權,但當事人另有約定的除外。

  Article 380 Depository's Lien in Case of Non-payment Where the depositor fails to pay the safekeeping fee and other expenses, the depository is entitled to a possessory lien on the deposit, unless otherwise agreed by the parties.

  第二十章 倉儲合同

  Chapter Twenty: Warehousing Contracts

  第三百八十一條倉儲合同是保管人儲存存貨人交付的倉儲物,存貨人支付倉儲費的合同。

  Article 381 Definition of Warehousing Contract A warehousing contract is a contract whereby the warehouser stores the goods delivered by the depositor, and the depositor pays the warehousing fee.

  第三百八十二條倉儲合同自成立時生效。

  Article 382 Effectiveness of Warehousing Contract A warehousing contract becomes effective upon its formation.

  第三百八十三條儲存易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蝕性、有放射性等危險物品或者易變質物品,存貨人應當說明該物品的性質,提供有關資料。

  Article 383 Storage of Hazardous Material Where the depositor intends to store any hazardous material which is inflammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, or radioactive, etc., or any material susceptible to deterioration, it shall describe the nature of the goods and provide the relevant information.

  存貨人違反前款規定的,保管人可以拒收倉儲物,也可以采取相應措施以避免損失的發生,因此產生的費用由存貨人承擔。

  Where the depositor violates the previous paragraph, the warehouser may reject the goods and may also take the appropriate measures to prevent loss at the depositor's expense.

  保管人儲存易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蝕性、有放射性等危險物品的,應當具備相應的保管條件。

  Where the warehouser is to store any hazardous material which is inflammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, or radioactive, etc., it shall be equipped with the appropriate safekeeping conditions.

  第三百八十四條保管人應當按照約定對入庫倉儲物進行驗收。保管人驗收時發現入庫倉儲物與約定不符合的,應當及時通知存貨人。保管人驗收后,發生倉儲物的品種、數量、質量不符合約定的,保管人應當承擔損害賠償責任。

  Article 384 Inspection by Warehouser; Passing of Responsibility The warehouser shall, in accordance with the contract, conduct warehouse-in inspection of the goods. Where in the course of such inspection, the warehouser discovers any non-compliance of the goods, it shall timely notify the depositor. After inspection and acceptance by the warehouser, if any non-compliance in respect of the type, quantity or quality of the goods occurs, the warehouser shall be liable for damages.

  第三百八十五條存貨人交付倉儲物的,保管人應當給付倉單。

  Article 385 Warehouse Receipt Upon the depositor's delivery of the goods, the warehouser shall issue thereto a warehouse receipt.

  第三百八十六條保管人應當在倉單上簽字或者蓋章。倉單包括下列事項:

  Article 386 Contents of Warehouse Receipt The warehouser shall sign or seal the warehouse receipt. The warehouse receipt shall set forth the following:

  (一)存貨人的名稱或者姓名和住所;

  (i) name and domicile of the depositor;

  (二)倉儲物的品種、數量、質量、包裝、件數和標記;

  (ii) the type, quantity, quality, and packing method of the goods, and the number of packages thereof and the marks thereon;

  (三)倉儲物的損耗標準;

  (iii) the depletion standard for the goods;

  (四)儲存場所;

  (iv) the warehousing facility;

  (五)儲存期間;

  (v) the warehousing period;

  (六)倉儲費;

  (vi) the warehousing fee;

  (七)倉儲物已經辦理保險的,其保險金額、期間以及保險人的名稱;

  (vii) if the goods are insured, the insured amount, term of insurance and the name of the insurer;

  (八)填發人、填發地和填發日期。

  (viii)the preparing and issuing person and place and date of preparation and issuance.

  第三百八十七條倉單是提取倉儲物的憑證。存貨人或者倉單持有人在倉單上背書并經保管人簽字或者蓋章的,可以轉讓提取倉儲物的權利。

  Article 387 Nature and Assignability of Warehouse Receipt The warehouse receipt is the voucher for retrieving the goods. Where the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt has endorsed the warehouse receipt and the warehouser has signed or sealed thereon, the right to retrieve the goods may be assigned.

  第三百八十八條保管人根據存貨人或者倉單持有人的要求,應當同意其檢查倉儲物或者提取樣品。

  Article 388 Warehouse Receipt Holder's Right to Inspect Upon request by the holder of the warehouse receipt, the warehouser shall allow him to inspect the goods or take samples therefrom.

  第三百八十九條保管人對入庫倉儲物發現有變質或者其他損壞的,應當及時通知存貨人或者倉單持有人。

  Article 389 Obligation of Warehouser to Notify in Case of Damage Where the warehouser discovers that the warehoused goods are deteriorating or are otherwise damaged, it shall timely notify the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt.

  第三百九十條保管人對入庫倉儲物發現有變質或者其他損壞,危及其他倉儲物的安全和正常保管的,應當催告存貨人或者倉單持有人作出必要的處置。因情況緊急,保管人可以作出必要的處置,但事后應當將該情況及時通知存貨人或者倉單持有人。

  Article 390 Warehouser's Obligations and Rights in Respect of Deteriorating Goods Where the warehouser discovers that the warehoused goods are deteriorating or are otherwise damaged, thereby endangering other goods and normal safekeeping, it shall demand disposal of the goods by the depositor or the holder of the warehouse receipt as necessary. In an emergency situation, the warehouser may dispose of the goods as necessary, provided that thereafter it shall timely notify the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt of the situation.

  第三百九十一條當事人對儲存期間沒有約定或者約定不明確的,存貨人或者倉單持有人可以隨時提取倉儲物,保管人也可以隨時要求存貨人或者倉單持有人提取倉儲物,但應當給予必要的準備時間。

  Article 391 Warehousing Period Where the warehousing period was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt may retrieve the goods at any time, and the warehouser may require the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt to retrieve the goods at any time, provided that the other party shall be given the time required for preparation.

  第三百九十二條儲存期間屆滿,存貨人或者倉單持有人應當憑倉單提取倉儲物。

  Article 392 Retrieval of Goods At the end of the warehousing period, the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt shall retrieve the goods by presenting the warehouse receipt to the warehouser.

  存貨人或者倉單持有人逾期提取的,應當加收倉儲費;提前提取的,不減收倉儲費。

  Where the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt delays in retrieving the goods, additional warehousing fee shall be charged; where the goods are retrieved before the end of the warehousing period, the warehousing fee shall not be reduced.

  第三百九十三條儲存期間屆滿,存貨人或者倉單持有人不提取倉儲物的,保管人可以催告其在合理期限內提取,逾期不提取的,保管人可以提存倉儲物。

  Article 393 Placing Goods in Escrow in Case of Failure to Retrieve At the end of the warehousing period, if the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt failed to retrieve the goods, the warehouser may demand retrieval within a reasonable period, and if the goods are not retrieved at the end of such period, the warehouser may place the goods in escrow.

  第三百九十四條儲存期間,因保管人保管不善造成倉儲物毀損、滅失的,保管人應當承擔損害賠償責任。

  Article 394 Warehouser's Liabilities in Case of Damage to Goods Where the goods were damaged or lost during the warehousing period due to improper safekeeping by the warehouser, it shall be liable for damages.

  因倉儲物的性質、包裝不符合約定或者超過有效儲存期造成倉儲物變質、損壞的,保管人不承擔損害賠償責任。

  If the goods deteriorated or were damaged due to their nature, non-conforming packing method, or storage beyond their shelf-life, the warehouser is not liable for damages.

  第三百九十五條本章沒有規定的,適用保管合同的有關規定。

  Article 395 Provisions Governing Safekeeping Contracts Applicable A matter not provided for in this Chapter shall be governed by the relevant provision applicable to safekeeping contracts.

  第二十一章 委托合同

  Chapter Twenty One: Agency Appointment Contracts

  第三百九十六條委托合同是委托人和受托人約定,由受托人處理委托人事務的合同。

  Article 396 Definition of Agency Appointment Contract An agency appointment contract is a contract whereby the principal and the agent agree that the agent will handle the principal's affairs.

  第三百九十七條委托人可以特別委托受托人處理一項或者數項事務,也可以概括委托受托人處理一切事務。

  Article 397 Scope of Appointment The principal may specifically appoint the agent to handle one or more of its affairs, or generally appoint the agent to handle all of its affairs.

  第三百九十八條委托人應當預付處理委托事務的費用。受托人為處理委托事務墊付的必要費用,委托人應當償還該費用及其利息。

  Article 398 Principal's Obligation to Prepay Expenses The principal shall prepay the expenses for handling the entrusted affair. Any expense necessary for handling the entrusted affair advanced by the agent shall be repaid with interest by the principal.

  第三百九十九條受托人應當按照委托人的指示處理委托事務。需要變更委托人指示的,應當經委托人同意;因情況緊急,難以和委托人取得聯系的,受托人應當妥善處理委托事務,但事后應當將該情況及時報告委托人。

  Article 399 Agent's Obligation to Follow Instruction; Deviation from Instruction The agent shall handle the entrusted affair in accordance with the instruction of the principal. Any required deviation from the principal's instruction is subject to consent by the principal; in an emergency where the agent has difficulty contacting the principal, the agent shall properly handle the entrusted affair, provided that thereafter the agent shall timely notify the principal of the situation.

  第四百條受托人應當親自處理委托事務。經委托人同意,受托人可以轉委托。轉委托經同意的,委托人可以就委托事務直接指示轉委托的第三人,受托人僅就第三人的選任及其對第三人的指示承擔責任。轉委托未經同意的,受托人應當對轉委托的第三人的行為承擔責任,但在緊急情況下受托人為維護委托人的利益需要轉委托的除外。

  Article 400 Delegation of Agency Subject to Consent; Exceptions The agent shall personally handle the entrusted affair. Subject to consent by the principal, the agent may delegate the agency to a third person. If the delegation is approved, the principal may issue instructions concerning the entrusted affair directly to the delegate, and the agent is only responsible for its selection of the delegate or its own instruction thereto. Where the agency is delegated without consent, the agent shall be liable for any act of the delegate, except in an emergency where the agent needs to delegate the agency in order to safeguard the interests of the principal.

  第四百零一條受托人應當按照委托人的要求,報告委托事務的處理情況。委托合同終止時,受托人應當報告委托事務的結果。

  Article 401 Agent's Obligation to Inform Upon request by the principal, the agent shall report on the progress of the entrusted affair. Upon discharge of the agency contract, the agent shall render an account of the entrusted affair.

  第四百零二條受托人以自己的名義,在委托人的授權范圍內與第三人訂立的合同,第三人在訂立合同時知道受托人與委托人之間的代理關系的,該合同直接約束委托人和第三人,但有確切證據證明該合同只約束受托人和第三人的除外。

  Article 402 Agent's Act Binding on Principal; Exceptions Where the agent, acting within the scope of authority granted by the principal, entered into a contract in its own name with a third person who was aware of the agency relationship between the principal and agent, the contract is directly binding upon the principal and such third person, except where there is conclusive evidence establishing that the contract is only binding upon the agent and such third person.

  第四百零三條受托人以自己的名義與第三人訂立合同時,第三人不知道受托人與委托人之間的代理關系的,受托人因第三人的原因對委托人不履行義務,受托人應當向委托人披露第三人,委托人因此可以行使受托人對第三人的權利,但第三人與受托人訂立合同時如果知道該委托人就不會訂立合同的除外。

  Article 403 Agent's Non-performance toward Principal Due to Act of Third Person; Non-performance toward Third Person Due to Act of Principal Where the agent entered into a contract in its own name with a third person who was not aware of the agency relationship between the agent and the principal, if the agent failed to perform its obligation toward the principal due to any reason attributable to such third person, the agent shall disclose the third person to the principal, allowing it to exercise the agent's rights against such third person, except where the third person would not have entered into the contract with the agent had it known the identity of the principal.

  受托人因委托人的原因對第三人不履行義務,受托人應當向第三人披露委托人,第三人因此可以選擇受托人或者委托人作為相對人主張其權利,但第三人不得變更選定的相對人。

  Where the agent failed to perform its obligation toward the third person due to any reason attributable to the principal, the agent shall disclose the principal to the third person, allowing the third person to select in alternative either the principal or the agent as the other contract party against whom to make a claim, provided that the third person may not subsequently change its selection of the contract party.

  委托人行使受托人對第三人的權利的,第三人可以向委托人主張其對受托人的抗辯。第三人選定委托人作為其相對人的,委托人可以向第三人主張其對受托人的抗辯以及受托人對第三人的抗辯。

  Where the principal exercises the rights of the agent against the third person, the third person may avail itself of any defense it has against the agent. Where the third person selects the principal as the other party to the contract, the principal may avail itself of any defense it has against the agent as well as any defense the agent has against the third person.

  第四百零四條受托人處理委托事務取得的財產,應當轉交給委托人。

  Article 404 Property Acquired by Agent Any property acquired by the agent in the course of handling the entrusted affair shall be turned over to the principal.

  第四百零五條受托人完成委托事務的,委托人應當向其支付報酬。因不可歸責于受托人的事由,委托合同解除或者委托事務不能完成的,委托人應當向受托人支付相應的報酬。當事人另有約定的,按照其約定。

  Article 405 Remuneration to Agent Upon completion of the entrusted affair by the agent, the principal shall pay the remuneration thereto. Where the agency appointment contract is terminated or the entrusted affair is not capable of being completed due to any reason not attributable to the agent, the principal shall pay to the agent an appropriate amount of remuneration. If the parties have agreed otherwise, such agreement prevails.

  第四百零六條有償的委托合同,因受托人的過錯給委托人造成損失的,委托人可以要求賠償損失。無償的委托合同,因受托人的故意或者重大過失給委托人造成損失的,委托人可以要求賠償損失。

  Article 406 Liability of Agent; Unauthorized Act Under an agency appointment contract for value, if the principal sustains any loss due to the fault of the agent, the principal may claim damages. Under a gratuitous agency appointment contract, if the principal sustains any loss due to the agent's intentional misconduct or gross negligence, the principal may claim damages.

  受托人超越權限給委托人造成損失的,應當賠償損失。

  Where the agent acted beyond the scope of authorization, thereby causing loss to the principal, it shall pay damages.

  第四百零七條受托人處理委托事務時,因不可歸責于自己的事由受到損失的,可以向委托人要求賠償損失。

  Article 407 Agent Entitled to Indemnification in Case of Loss In the course of handling the entrusted affair, if the agent sustains any loss due to a reason not attributable to itself, the agent may seek indemnification from the principal.

  第四百零八條委托人經受托人同意,可以在受托人之外委托第三人處理委托事務。因此給受托人造成損失的,受托人可以向委托人要求賠償損失。

  Article 408 Additional Appointment by Principal Subject to Consent Subject to consent by the agent, the principal may, in addition to appointing the agent, also appoint a third person to handle the entrusted affair. If such appointment results in loss to the agent, it may seek indemnification from the principal.

  第四百零九條兩個以上的受托人共同處理委托事務的,對委托人承擔連帶責任。

  Article 409 Joint and Several Liability of Joint Agents Where two or more agents jointly handle the entrusted affair, they are jointly and severally liable to the principal.

  第四百一十條委托人或者受托人可以隨時解除委托合同。因解除合同給對方造成損失的,除不可歸責于該當事人的事由以外,應當賠償損失。

  Article 410 Right to Terminate at Any Time Either the principal or the agent may terminate the agency appointment contract at any time. Where the other party sustains any loss due to termination of the contract, the terminating party shall indemnify the other party, unless such loss is due to a reason not attributable to the terminating party.

  第四百一十一條委托人或者受托人死亡、喪失民事行為能力或者破產的,委托合同終止,但當事人另有約定或者根據委托事務的性質不宜終止的除外。

  Article 411 Discharge Due to Incapacitation An agency appointment contract is discharged when either the principal or the agent is deceased or incapacitated or enters into bankruptcy, except where the parties have agreed otherwise, or where discharge is inappropriate in light of the nature of the entrusted affair.

  第四百一十二條因委托人死亡、喪失民事行為能力或者破產,致使委托合同終止將損害委托人利益的,在委托人的繼承人、法定代理人或者清算組織承受委托事務之前,受托人應當繼續處理委托事務。

  Article 412 Agent's Obligations in Case of Principal's Incapacitation Where discharge of the agency appointment contract due to the death, incapacitation or bankruptcy of the principal will harm the principal's interests, the agent shall continue to handle the entrusted affair before an heir, legal agent or liquidation team thereof takes over the entrusted affair.

  第四百一十三條因受托人死亡、喪失民事行為能力或者破產,致使委托合同終止的,受托人的繼承人、法定代理人或者清算組織應當及時通知委托人。因委托合同終止將損害委托人利益的,在委托人作出善后處理之前,受托人的繼承人、法定代理人或者清算組織應當采取必要措施。

  Article 413 Heir's Obligations in Case of Agent's Incapacitation If the agency appointment contract is discharged as a result of the death, incapacitation or bankruptcy of the agent, the heir, legal agent or liquidation team thereof shall timely notify the principal. Where discharge of the agency contract will harm the principal's interests, before the principal makes any care-taking arrangement, the heir, legal agent or liquidation team of the agent shall take the necessary measures.

  第二十二章 行紀合同

  Chapter Twenty Two Trading-Trust Contracts

  第四百一十四條行紀合同是行紀人以自己的名義為委托人從事貿易活動,委托人支付報酬的合同。

  Article 414 Definition of Trading-Trust Contract A trading-trust contract is a contract whereby the trustee-trader conducts trading activities in its own name for the trustor, and the trustor pays the remuneration.

  第四百一十五條行紀人處理委托事務支出的費用,由行紀人負擔,但當事人另有約定的除外。

  Article 415 Expenses Borne by Trustee-trader The expenses incurred by the trustee-trader in the course of handling the entrusted affair shall be borne by the trustee-trader, except otherwise agreed by the parties.

  第四百一十六條行紀人占有委托物的,應當妥善保管委托物。

  Article 416 Trustee-trader's Obligation to Exercise Due Care Where the trustee-trader is in possession of the trust item, it shall keep the trust item with due care.

  第四百一十七條委托物交付給行紀人時有瑕疵或者容易腐爛、變質的,經委托人同意,行紀人可以處分該物;和委托人不能及時取得聯系的,行紀人可以合理處分。

  Article 417 Disposal of Defective Trust Item by Trustee-trader If a trust item was defective, perishable or susceptible to deterioration at the time it was delivered to the trustee-trader, upon consent by the trustor, the trustee-trader may dispose of the item; where the trustee-trader is unable to contact the trustor in time, it may dispose of the trust item in a reasonable manner.

  第四百一十八條行紀人低于委托人指定的價格賣出或者高于委托人指定的價格買入的,應當經委托人同意。未經委托人同意,行紀人補償其差額的,該買賣對委托人發生效力。

  Article 418 Pricing of Trust Item Where the trustee-trader is to sell the trust item below, or buy the trust item above, the price designated by the trustor, it shall obtain consent from the trustor. If such sale was effected without consent by the trustor, and the trustee-trader made up the deficiency on its own, it is binding on the trustor.

  行紀人高于委托人指定的價格賣出或者低于委托人指定的價格買入的,可以按照約定增加報酬。沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,該利益屬于委托人。

  Where the trustee-trader sold the trust item above, or purchased the trust item below, the price designated by the trustor, the remuneration may be increased in accordance with the contract. Where such matter was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, the benefit belongs to the trustor.

  委托人對價格有特別指示的,行紀人不得違背該指示賣出或者買入。

  Where the trustor gives special pricing instruction, the trustee-trader may not make any sale or purchase in contravention thereof.

  第四百一十九條行紀人賣出或者買入具有市場定價的商品,除委托人有相反的意思表示的以外,行紀人自己可以作為買受人或者出賣人。

  Article 419 Trustee-trader Acting as Purchaser or Seller Where the trustee-trader is to sell or purchase a commodity the price of which is fixed by the market, the trustee-trader may act as the purchaser or seller itself, unless the trustor has otherwise manifested its intention.

  行紀人有前款規定情形的,仍然可以要求委托人支付報酬。

  Where the trustee-trader is in a situation described in the previous paragraph, it may still require payment of remuneration from the trustor.

  第四百二十條行紀人按照約定買入委托物,委托人應當及時受領。經行紀人催告,委托人無正當理由拒絕受領的,行紀人依照本法第一百零一條的規定可以提存委托物。

  Article 420 Trustor's Obligation to Take Delivery; Trustee-trader's Remedies in Case of Trustor's Failure to Take Delivery Once the trustee-trader purchased the trust item in accordance with the contract, the trustor shall timely take delivery. Where after receiving demand from the trustee-trader, the trustor refuses to take delivery without cause, the trustee-trader may place the trust item in escrow in accordance with Article 101 hereof.

  委托物不能賣出或者委托人撤回出賣,經行紀人催告,委托人不取回或者不處分該物的,行紀人依照本法第一百零一條的規定可以提存委托物。

  Where the trust item fails to be sold or the trustor withdraws it from sale, the trustee-trader may place the trust item in escrow in accordance with Article 101 hereof if the trustor fails to retrieve or dispose of it after receiving such demand from trustee-trader.

  第四百二十一條行紀人與第三人訂立合同的,行紀人對該合同直接享有權利、承擔義務。

  Article 421 Trustee-trader's Rights and Obligations as Party to Contract with Third Person Where the trustee-trader entered into a contract with a third person, it directly enjoys the rights and assumes the obligations thereunder.

  第三人不履行義務致使委托人受到損害的,行紀人應當承擔損害賠償責任,但行紀人與委托人另有約定的除外。

  Where the third person failed to perform its obligations, thereby causing damage to the trustor, the trustee-trader shall be liable for damages, except otherwise agreed by the trustee-trader and the trustor.

  第四百二十二條行紀人完成或者部分完成委托事務的,委托人應當向其支付相應的報酬。委托人逾期不支付報酬的,行紀人對委托物享有留置權,但當事人另有約定的除外。

  Article 422 Trustee-trader's Right to Remuneration; Possessory Lien in Case of Non-payment Where the trustee-trader has completed the entrusted matter or has partially completed the entrusted matter, the trustor shall pay the appropriate remuneration thereto. Where the trustor fails to pay the remuneration within the prescribed period, the trustee-trader is entitled to a possessory lien on the trust item, except otherwise agreed by the parties.

  第四百二十三條本章沒有規定的,適用委托合同的有關規定。

  Article 423 Provisions Governing Agency Appointment Contracts Applicable A matter not provided for in this Chapter shall be governed by the relevant provision applicable to agency appointment contracts.

  第二十三章 居間合同

  Chapter Twenty Three: Brokerage Contracts

  第四百二十四條居間合同是居間人向委托人報告訂立合同的機會或者提供訂立合同的媒介服務,委托人支付報酬的合同。

  Article 424 Definition of Brokerage Contract A brokerage contract is a contract whereby the broker presents to the client an opportunity for entering into a contract or provides the client with intermediary services in connection with the conclusion thereof, and the client pays the remuneration.

  第四百二十五條居間人應當就有關訂立合同的事項向委托人如實報告。

  Article 425 Broker's Obligation to Provide True Information The broker shall provide true information concerning matters relevant to the conclusion of the proposed contract.

  居間人故意隱瞞與訂立合同有關的重要事實或者提供虛假情況,損害委托人利益的,不得要求支付報酬并應當承擔損害賠償責任。

  Where the broker intentionally concealed any material fact or provided false information in connection with the conclusion of the proposed contract, thereby harming the client's interests, it may not require payment of any remuneration and shall be liable for damages.

  第四百二十六條居間人促成合同成立的,委托人應當按照約定支付報酬。對居間人的報酬沒有約定或者約定不明確,依照本法第六十一條的規定仍不能確定的,根據居間人的勞務合理確定。因居間人提供訂立合同的媒介服務而促成合同成立的,由該合同的當事人平均負擔居間人的報酬。

  Article 426 Broker Entitled to Remuneration Once the broker facilitated the formation of the proposed contract, the client shall pay the remuneration in accordance with the brokerage contract. Where remuneration to the broker was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, it shall be reasonably fixed in light of the amount of labor expended by the broker. Where the broker facilitated the formation of the proposed contract by providing intermediary services in connection therewith, the remuneration paid to the broker shall be equally borne by parties thereto.

  居間人促成合同成立的,居間活動的費用,由居間人負擔。

  Where the broker facilitated the formation of the proposed contract, the brokerage expenses shall be borne by itself.

  第四百二十七條居間人未促成合同成立的,不得要求支付報酬,但可以要求委托人支付從事居間活動支出的必要費用。 附則

  Article 427 Broker Entitled to Reimbursement in Case of Failure to Conclude Proposed Contract Where the broker failed to facilitate the formation of the proposed contract, it may not require payment of remuneration, provided that it may require the client to reimburse the necessary brokerage expenses incurred.

  第四百二十八條本法自1999年10月1日起施行,《中華人民共和國經濟合同法》、《中華人民共和國涉外經濟合同法》、《中華人民共和國技術合同法》同時廢止。

  Article 428 Effectiveness; Repealing Certain Laws This Law shall take effect as from October 1, 1999, and the Economic Contract Law of the People's Republic of China, the Foreign-related Economic Contract Law of the People's Republic of China, and the Technology Contract Law of the People's Republic of China shall be repealed simultaneously.

  最高人民法院關于適用《中華人民共和國合同法》若干問題的解釋(一)

  The Supreme People's Court's Interpretations of Certain Issues Concerning the Application of The Contract Law of the People's Republic of China (Part One) Translated by John Jiang & Henry Liu

  法釋〔一九九九〕十九號一九九九年十二月一日

  [Judicial Interpretations (1999) No. 19]

  最高人民法院審判委員會第一千零九十次會議通過

  Adopted at the 1090th Session of the Adjudication Committee of the Supreme People's Court on December 1, 1999

  為了正確審理合同糾紛案件,根據《中華人民共和國合同法》(以下簡稱合同法)的規定,對人民法院適用合同法的有關問題作出如下解釋:

  Pursuant to The Contract Law of the People's Republic of China (hereinafter the "Contract Law"), and with a view to facilitating the proper adjudication of contractual disputes, we hereby promulgate the following interpretations of certain issues concerning the application of the Contract Law by People's Courts:

  一、法律適用范圍

  I. Scope of Application of the Law

  第一條合同法實施以后成立的合同發生糾紛起訴到人民法院的,適用合同法的規定;合同法實施以前成立的合同發生糾紛起訴到人民法院的,除本解釋另有規定的以外,適用當時的法律規定,當時沒有法律規定的,可以適用合同法的有關規定。

  Clause 1 Where a suit is brought to a People's Court in respect of a dispute arising out of a contract formed after the operative date of the Contract Law, the provisions of the Contract Law shall apply; where a suit is brought to a People's Court in respect of a dispute concerning a contract formed before the operative date of the Contract Law, except otherwise provided herein, the provisions of the law in effect at the time shall apply, provided that if the law in effect at the time did not provide for such matter, the relevant provision of the Contract Law may apply.

  第二條合同成立于合同法實施之前,但合同約定的履行期限跨越合同法實施之日或者履行期限在合同法實施之后,因履行合同發生的糾紛,適用合同法第四章的有關規定。

  Clause 2 Where a contract was formed before the operative date of the Contract Law, but the prescribed time limit for performance extends beyond, or commences after, the operative date of the Contract Law, if a dispute arises out of its performance, the relevant provisions of Chapter Four of the Contract Law shall apply.

  第三條人民法院確認合同效力時,對合同法實施以前成立的合同,適用當時的法律合同無效而適用合同法合同有效的,則適用合同法。

  Clause 3 In determining the validity of a contract formed before the operative date of the Contract Law, if application of the law in effect at the time leads to its invalidation, but application of the Contract Law leads to affirmation of its validity, the People's Court shall apply the Contract Law.

  第四條合同法實施以后,人民法院確認合同無效,應當以全國人大及其常委會制定的法律和國務院制定的行政法規為依據,不得以地方性法規、行政規章為依據。

  Clause 4 After the Contract Law became operative, a People's Court may only invalidate a contract in accordance with laws adopted by the National People's Congress or its Standing Committee, or administrative regulations adopted by the State Council, and may not invalidate a contract in accordance with any local statutes or administrative rules.

  第五條人民法院對合同法實施以前已經作出終審裁決的案件進行再審,不適用合同法。

  Clause 5 Where a People's Court re-adjudicates a case on which a final judgment has been rendered, the Contract Law does not apply.

  二、訴訟時效

  II. Time Limit for Action

  第六條技術合同爭議當事人的權利受到侵害的事實發生在合同法實施之前,自當事人知道或者應當知道其權利受到侵害之日起至合同法實施之日超過一年的,人民法院不予保護;尚未超過一年的,其提起訴訟的時效期間為兩年。

  Clause 6 In a dispute arising out of a technology contract, where infringement of the right of a party occurred before the operative date of the Contract Law, if there was a lapse of more than one year between the date on which the party knew or should have known that its right was infringed and the operative date of the Contract Law, the People's Court will no longer enforce such right; where the lapse was less than one year, the time limit during which the party may bring a suit shall be two years.

  第七條技術進出口合同爭議當事人的權利受到侵害的事實發生在合同法實施之前,自當事人知道或者應當知道其權利受到侵害之日起至合同法施行之日超過兩年的,人民法院不予保護;尚未超過兩年的,其提起訴訟的時效期間為四年。

  Clause 7 In a dispute arising out of a technology import/export contract, where infringement of the right of a party occurred before the operative date of the Contract Law, if there was a lapse of more than two years between the date on which the party knew or should have known that its right was infringed and the operative date of the Contract Law, the People's Court will no longer enforce such right; where the lapse was less than two years, the time limit during which the party may bring a suit shall be four years.

  第八條合同法第五十五條規定的“一年”、第七十五條和第一百零四條第二款規定的“五年”為不變期間,不適用訴訟時效中止、中斷或者延長的規定。

  Clause 8 The time period of "one year" set out in Article 55, and the time period of "five years" set out in Article 75 and Paragraph 2 of Article 104 of the Contract Law are fixed, and are not subject to the rules governing the suspension, termination or extension of time limit for action.

  三、合同效力

  III. Validity of Contracts

  第九條依照合同法第四十四條第二款的規定,法律、行政法規規定合同應當辦理批準手續,或者辦理批準、登記等手續才生效,在一審法庭辯論終結前當事人仍未辦理批準手續的,或者仍未辦理批準、登記等手續的,人民法院應當認定該合同未生效;法律、行政法規規定合同應當辦理登記手續,但未規定登記后生效的,當事人未辦理登記手續不影響合同的效力,合同標的物所有權及其他物權不能轉移。

  Clause 9 Where as set forth in Paragraph 2 of Article 44 of the Contract Law, the relevant law or administration regulation provides that the effectiveness of a certain contract is subject to completion of the relevant approval procedure, or the relevant approval and registration procedures, if before completion of court debate by the parties in the trial of first instance, the parties still fail to carry out the relevant approval procedure, or approval and registration procedures, as the case may be, the People's Court shall rule that the contract has not yet taken effect; if the relevant law or administration regulation requires that a certain contract be registered without subjecting its effectiveness to such registration, then failure to effect registration shall not impair the effectiveness of the contract, provided that such failure constitutes an impediment to the conveyance of title to, or such other real right in, the subject matter of the contract.

  合同法第七十七條第二款、第八十七條、第九十六條第二款所列合同變更、轉讓、解除等情形,依照前款規定處理。

  In the case of amendment, assignment or termination of a contract as set forth in Paragraph 2 of Article 77, Article 87, and Paragraph 2 of Article 96 of the Contract Law, the provisions of the previous Paragraph apply.

  第十條當事人超越經營范圍訂立合同,人民法院不因此認定合同無效。但違反國家限制經營、特許經營以及法律、行政法規禁止經營規定的除外。

  Clause 10 Where the parties entered into a contract the subject matter of which was outside their scope of business, the People's Court shall not invalidate the contract on such ground, except where conclusion of the contract was in violation of state restriction concerning, or licensing requirement for, a particular business sector, or in violation of any law or administrative regulation prohibiting the parties from participation in a particular business sector.

  四、代位權

  IV. Subrogation

  第十一條債權人依照合同法第七十三條的規定提起代位權訴訟,應當符合下列條件:

  Clause 11 Where an obligee is to bring a suit of subrogation pursuant to Article 73 of the Contract Law, the following conditions shall be met:

  (一)債權人對債務人的債權合法;

  (1) The obligee's creditor's right against the obligor is lawful;

  (二)債務人怠于行使其到期債權,對債權人造成損害;

  (2) The obligor's delay in exercising the creditor's right due to it has caused harm to the obligee;

  (三)債務人的債權已到期;

  (3) The creditor's right of the obligor is due;

  (四)債務人的債權不是專屬于債務人自身的債權。

  (4) The creditor's right of the obligor is not exclusively personal to it.

  第十二條合同法第七十三條第一款規定的專屬于債務人自身的債權,是指基于扶養關系、撫養關系、贍養關系、繼承關系產生的給付請求權和勞動報酬、退休金、養老金、撫恤金、安置費、人壽保險、人身傷害賠償請求權等權利。

  Clause 12 As referred to in Paragraph 1 of Article 73, a creditor's right exclusively personal to the obligor means a claim for alimony, child support, parental support or succession, or, a claim for wage, retirement pension, old age pension, death benefits, relocation allowance or life insurance, or, a personal injury claim.

  第十三條合同法第七十三條規定的“債務人怠于行使其到期債權,對債權人造成損害的”,是指債務人不履行其對債權人的到期債務,又不以訴訟方式或者仲裁方式向其債務人主張其享有的具有金錢給付內容的到期債權,致使債權人的到期債權未能實現。

  Clause 13 The clause "Where the obligor delayed in exercising its creditor's right against a third person that was due, thereby harming the obligee" in Article 73 of the Contract Law refers to the following circumstance: The obligor fails to render performance which is due to the obligee, and further, it has failed to enforce a creditor's right which is due to it and which involves the payment of money against an obligor either through a suit in court or through arbitration, thereby frustrating the obligee's realization of the creditor's right due to it.

  次債務人(即債務人的債務人)不認為債務人有怠于行使其到期債權情況的,應當承擔舉證責任。

  Where the secondary obligor (i.e. the obligor of the original obligor) denies that the obligor has delayed in exercising its creditor's right due to it, the secondary obligor bears the burden of proof.

  第十四條債權人依照合同法第七十三條的規定提起代位權訴訟的,由被告住所地人民法院管轄。

  Clause 14 Where an obligee brings a suit of subrogation pursuant to Article 73 of the Contract Law, jurisdiction shall vest in the People's Court in the place where the defendant is domiciled.

  第十五條債權人向人民法院起訴債務人以后,又向同一人民法院對次債務人提起代位權訴訟,符合本解釋第十三條的規定和《中華人民共和國民事訴訟法》第一百零八條規定的起訴條件的,應當立案受理;不符合本解釋第十三條規定的,告知債權人向次債務人住所地人民法院另行起訴。

  Clause 15 Where after bringing a suit against an obligor to a People's Court, an obligee brings a suit of subrogation against a secondary obligor to the same court, if such suit complies with the provisions of Article 13 hereof as well as the conditions for bringing a suit set forth in Article 108 of the Civil Procedural Law of the People's Republic of China, the court shall accept such suit; where such suit does not comply with Article 13 hereof, the court shall direct the obligee to bring a separate suit to the People's Court in the place where the secondary obligor is domiciled.

  受理代位權訴訟的人民法院在債權人起訴債務人的訴訟裁決發生法律效力以前,應當依照《中華人民共和國民事訴訟法》第一百三十六條第(五)項的規定中止代位權訴訟。

  Before judgment on the suit brought by the obligee against the obligor takes legal effect, the People's Court adjudicating the suit of subrogation against the secondary obligor shall stay such suit in accordance with Item (5) of Article 136 of the Civil Procedural Law of the People's Republic of China.

  第十六條債權人以次債務人為被告向人民法院提起代位權訴訟,未將債務人列為第三人的,人民法院可以追加債務人為第三人。

  Clause 16 Where in a suit of subrogation brought to a People's Court, an obligee names only the secondary obligor as the defendant without also naming the original obligor as an interested third person, the People's Court may add the original obligor as an interested third person.

  兩個或者兩個以上債權人以同一次債務人為被告提起代位權訴訟的,人民法院可以合并審理。

  Where in suits of subrogation brought separately by two or more obligees, the same secondary obligor is named as the defendant, the People's Court may combine the suits for adjudication.

  第十七條在代位權訴訟中,債權人請求人民法院對次債務人的財產采取保全措施的,應當提供相應的財產擔保。

  Clause 17 In a suit of subrogation, if the obligee petitions the People's Court for preservative measure against the assets of the secondary obligor, it shall provide appropriate financial assurance.

  第十八條在代位權訴訟中,次債務人對債務人的抗辯,可以向債權人主張。

  Clause 18 In a suit of subrogation, the secondary obligor may, in respect of the obligee, avail itself of any defense it has against the original obligor.

  債務人在代位權訴訟中對債權人的債權提出異議,經審查異議成立的,人民法院應當裁定駁回債權人的起訴。

  In a suit of subrogation, where the obligor raises a defense against the obligee's claim, if the People's Court affirms the defense, it shall dismiss the suit brought by the obligee.

  第十九條在代位權訴訟中,債權人勝訴的,訴訟費由次債務人負擔,從實現的債權中優先支付。

  Clause 19 In a suit of subrogation, if the obligee prevails, the court fee shall be borne by the secondary obligor, and shall be paid in priority out of the proceeds from the enforced creditor's right.

  第二十條債權人向次債務人提起的代位權訴訟經人民法院審理后認定代位權成立的,由次債務人向債權人履行清償義務,債權人與債務人、債務人與次債務人之間相應的債權債務關系即予消滅。

  Clause 20 Where an obligee brings a suit of subrogation against a secondary obligor, and the People's Court affirms the subrogation, the secondary obligor shall perform the payment obligation, whereupon the respective obligee-obligor relationships between the obligee and the obligor, and between the obligor and the secondary obligor, are discharged accordingly.

  第二十一條在代位權訴訟中,債權人行使代位權的請求數額超過債務人所負債務額或者超過次債務人對債務人所負債務額的,對超出部分人民法院不予支持。

  Clause 21 In a suit of subrogation, where the amount in subrogation claimed by the obligee exceeds the amount owed by the obligor or the amount owed to the obligor by the secondary obligor, the People's Court shall not enforce the claim to the extent the claimed amount exceeds the actual amount.

  第二十二條債務人在代位權訴訟中,對超過債權人代位請求數額的債權部分起訴次債務人的,人民法院應當告知其向有管轄權的人民法院另行起訴。

  Clause 22 In a suit of subrogation, if the obligor also brings a claim against the secondary obligor for the difference between the amount owed to it and the amount in subrogation claimed by the obligee, the People's Court shall direct the obligor to bring a separate suit to the People's Court with the proper jurisdiction.

  債務人的起訴符合法定條件的,人民法院應當受理;受理債務人起訴的人民法院在代位權訴訟裁決發生法律效力以前,應當依法中止。

  Where such suit brought separately by the obligor meets the legally prescribed conditions, the People's Court shall accept such suit; the People's Court accepting the suit brought by the obligor shall stay such suit in accordance with the law pending the legal effectiveness of the judgment on the suit of subrogation.

  五、撤銷權

  V. Cancellation Right

  第二十三條債權人依照合同法第七十四條的規定提起撤銷權訴訟的,由被告住所地人民法院管轄。

  Clause 23 Where an obligee brings a suit to enforce its cancellation right pursuant to Article 74 of the Contract Law, jurisdiction shall vest in the People's Court in the place where the defendant is domiciled.

  第二十四條債權人依照合同法第七十四條的規定提起撤銷權訴訟時只以債務人為被告,未將受益人或者受讓人列為第三人的,人民法院可以追加該受益人或者受讓人為第三人。

  Clause 24 If in a suit to enforce its cancellation right pursuant to Article 74 of the Contract Law, the obligee only names the obligor as the defendant without also naming the beneficiary or the assignee as an interested third person, the People's Court may add such beneficiary or assignee as an interested third person.

  第二十五條債權人依照合同法第七十四條的規定提起撤銷權訴訟,請求人民法院撤銷債務人放棄債權或轉讓財產的行為,人民法院應當就債權人主張的部分進行審理,依法撤銷的,該行為自始無效。

  Clause 25 Where an obligee brings a suit to enforce its cancellation right pursuant to Article 74 of the Contract Law and petitions the People's Court for cancellation of the obligor's act of waiving its creditor's right or transferring its property, the People's Court shall adjudicate the case to the extent of the amount claimed by the obligee, and if the obligor's act is canceled in accordance with the law, such act is invalid ab initio.

  兩個或者兩個以上債權人以同一債務人為被告,就同一標的提起撤銷權訴訟的,人民法院可以合并審理。

  Where suits on the same subject matter are filed separately by two or more obligees to enforce their respective cancellation rights, and the same obligor is named as the defendant, the People's Court may combine the suits for adjudication.

  第二十六條債權人行使撤銷權所支付的律師代理費、差旅費等必要費用,由債務人負擔;第三人有過錯的,應當適當分擔。

  Clause 26 The necessary expenses incurred by the obligee in enforcing its cancellation right, such as attorney's fee and travel expenses, shall be borne by the obligor; where the interested third person was also at fault, it shall share such expenses as appropriate.

  六、合同轉讓中的第三人

  VI. Interested Third Person in Case of Assignment of Contracts

  第二十七條債權人轉讓合同權利后,債務人與受讓人之間因履行合同發生糾紛訴至人民法院,債務人對債權人的權利提出抗辯的,可以將債權人列為第三人。

  Clause 27 If subsequent to the obligee's assignment of its contractual right, a suit is brought to a People's Court in respect of a dispute between the obligor and the assignee which arose from the performance of the contract, and the obligor raises a defense against the contractual right of the obligee, it may name the obligee as an interested third person.

  第二十八條經債權人同意,債務人轉移合同義務后,受讓人與債權人之間因履行合同發生糾紛訴至人民法院,受讓人就債務人對債權人的權利提出抗辯的,可以將債務人列為第三人。

  Clause 28 If with the consent of the obligee, the obligor has delegated its contractual obligation, and subsequently a suit is brought to a People's Court in respect of a dispute between the obligee and the delegatee which arose from the performance of the contract, and the delegatee, in defense against the obligee, avails itself of the obligor's right against the obligee, it may name the obligor as an interested third person.

  第二十九條合同當事人一方經對方同意將其在合同中的權利義務一并轉讓給受讓人,對方與受讓人因履行合同發生糾紛訴至人民法院,對方就合同權利義務提出抗辯的,可以將出讓方列為第三人。

  Clause 29 If with the consent of the other party, a party concurrently assigned its contractual rights and delegated its contractual obligations to an assignee, and subsequently a suit is brought to a People's Court in respect of a dispute between the other party and the assignee which arose from the performance of the contract, and the other party raises a defense in respect of the rights and obligations under the contract, it may name the obligor as an interested third person.

  七、請求權競合

  VII. Merger of Claims

  第三十條債權人依照合同法第一百二十二條的規定向人民法院起訴時作出選擇后,在一審開庭以前又變更訴訟請求的,人民法院應當準許。對方當事人提出管轄權異議,經審查異議成立的,人民法院應當駁回起訴。

  Clause 30 Where at the time the obligee brought a suit to a People's Court, it made an election of claim in accordance with Article 122 of the Contract Law, and subsequently it changes its election, if the change is made before the commencement of hearing in the trial of first instance, the People's Court shall allow such change. In the event the other party objects to the jurisdiction of the court and such objection is sustained, the People's Court shall dismiss such suit.

中英對照法規  英文法規    中華人民共和國合同法  中英雙語

希尼爾翻譯公司  2014-10-24