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《三十六計》的英文表達 (中英雙語)


希尼爾翻譯公司(www.eacrwc.tw)2016年1月23日了解到:Chapter 1: Winning Stratagems
  第一套 勝戰計
  第一計 瞞天過海
  crossing the sea under camouflage
  Mask your real goals, by using the ruse of a fake goal, until the real goal is achieved. Tactically, this is known as an 'open feint': in front of everyone, you point west, when your goal is actually in the east.
  第二計 圍魏救趙
  relieving the state of Zhao by besieging the state of Wei
  When the enemy is too strong to be attacked directly, then attack something he holds dear. Know that he cannot be superior in all things. Somewhere there is a gap in the armour, a weakness that can be attacked instead. The idea here is to avoid a head-on battle with a strong enemy, and instead strike at his weakness elsewhere. This will force the strong enemy to retreat in order to support his weakness. Battling against the now tired and low-morale enemy will give a much higher chance of success.
  第三計 借刀殺人
  killing someone with a borrowed knife
  When you do not have the means to attack your enemy directly, then attack using the strength of another. Trick an ally into attacking him, bribe an official to turn traitor, or use the enemy's own strength against him.
  第四計 以逸待勞
  waiting at one's ease for the exhausted enemy
  It is an advantage to choose the time and place for battle. In this way you know when and where the battle will take place, while your enemy does not. Encourage your enemy to expend his energy in futile quests while you conserve your strength. When he is exhausted and confused, you attack with energy and purpose.
  第五計 趁火打劫
  plundering a burning house
  When a country is beset by internal conflicts, when disease and famine ravage the population, when corruption and crime are rampant, then it will be unable to deal with an outside threat. This is the time to attack.
  第六計 聲東擊西
  making a feint to the east and attacking in the west
  In any battle the element of surprise can provide an overwhelming advantage. Even when face to face with an enemy, surprise can still be employed by attacking where he least expects it. To do this you must create an expectation in the enemy's mind through the use of a feint.
  Chapter 2: Enemy Dealing Stratagems
  第二套 敵戰計
  第七計 無中生有
  creating something out of nothing
  You use the same feint twice. Having reacted to the first and often the second feint as well, the enemy will be hesitant to react to a third feint. Therefore the third feint is the actual attack catching your enemy with his guard down.
  第八計 暗渡陳倉
  advancing secretly by an unknown path
  Deceive the enemy with an obvious approach that will take a very long time, while surprising him by taking a shortcut and sneak up to him. As the enemy concentrates on the decoy, he will miss you sneaking up to him.
  第九計 隔岸觀火
  watching a fire from the other side of the river
  Delay entering the field of battle until all the other players have become exhausted fighting amongst themselves. Then go in at full strength and pick up the pieces.
  第十計 笑里藏刀
  covering the dagger with a smile
  Charm and ingratiate yourself with your enemy. When you have gained his trust, move against him in secret.
  第十一計 李代桃僵
  palming off substitute for the real thing
  There are circumstances in which you must sacrifice short-term objectives in order to gain the long-term goal. This is the scapegoat strategy whereby someone else suffers the consequences so that the rest do not.
  第十二計 順手牽羊
  picking up something in passing
  While carrying out your plans be flexible enough to take advantage of any opportunity that presents itself, however small, and avail yourself of any profit, however slight.
  Chapter 3: Attacking Stratagems
  第十三計 打草驚蛇
  beating the grass to frighten the snake
  Do something unaimed, but spectacular ("hitting the grass") to provoke a response of the enemy ("startle the snake"), thereby giving away his plans or position, or just taunt him.
  Do something unusual, strange, and unexpected as this will arouse the enemy's suspicion and disrupt his thinking.
  More widely used as "[Do not] startle the snake by hitting the grass". An imprudent act will give your position or intentions away to the enemy.
  第十四計 借尸還魂
  resurrecting a dead soul by borrowing a corpse
  Take an institution, a technology, a method, or even an ideology that has been forgotten or discarded and appropriate it for your own purpose.
  Revive something from the past by giving it a new purpose or bring to life old ideas, customs, or traditions and reinterpret them to fit your purposes.
  第十五計 調虎離山
  luring the tiger out of his den
  Never directly attack an opponent whose advantage is derived from its position. Instead lure him away from his position thus separating him from his source of strength.
  第十六計 欲擒故縱
  letting the enemy off in order to catch him
  Cornered prey will often mount a final desperate attack. To prevent this you let the enemy believe he still has a chance for freedom.
  His will to fight is thus dampened by his desire to escape. When in the end the freedom is proven a falsehood the enemy's morale will be defeated and he will surrender without a fight.
  第十七計 拋磚引玉
  giving the enemy something to induce him to lose more valuable things
  Bait someone by making him believe he gains something or just make him react to it ("toss out a brick") and obtain something valuable from him in return ("get a jade gem").
  第十八計 擒賊擒王
  capturing the ringleader first in order to capture all the followers
  If the enemy's army is strong but is allied to the commander only by money, superstition or threats, then take aim at the leader.
  If the commander falls the rest of the army will disperse or come over to your side.
  If, however, they are allied to the leader through loyalty then beware, the army can continue to fight on after his death out of vengeance.
  Chapter 4: Chaos Stratagems
  第十九計 釜底抽薪
  extracting the firewood from under the cauldron
  Take out the leading argument or asset of someone; "steal someone's thunder". This is the very essence of indirect approach: instead of attacking enemy's fighting forces, the attacks are directed against his ability to wage war.
  第二十計 混水摸魚
  muddling the water to catch the fish; fishing in troubled waters
  Create confusion and use this confusion to further your own goals.
  第二十一計 金蟬脫殼
  slipping away by casting off a cloak; getting away like the cicada sloughing its skin
  Mask yourself. Either leave one's distinctive traits behind, thus becoming inconspicuous, or masquerade as something or someone else.
  This strategy is mainly used to escape from enemy of superior strength.
  第二十二計 關門捉賊
  catching the thief by closing / blocking his escape route
  To capture your enemy, or more generally in fighting wars, to deliver the final blow to your enemy, you must plan prudently if you want to succeed. Do not rush into action. Before you "move in for the kill", first cut off your enemy's escape routes, and cut off any routes through which outside help can reach them.
  第二十三計 遠交近攻
  befriending the distant enemy while attacking a nearby enemy
  It is known that nations that border each other become enemies while nations separated by distance and obstacles make better allies.
  When you are the strongest in one field, your greatest threat is from the second strongest in your field, not the strongest from another field.
  第二十四計 假途伐虢
  attacking the enemy by passing through a common neighbor
  Borrow the resources of an ally to attack a common enemy. Once the enemy is defeated, use those resources to turn on the ally that lent you them in the first place.
  Chapter 5: Proximate Stratagems
  第二十五計 偷梁換柱
  stealing the beams and pillars and replacing them with rotten timbers
  Disrupt the enemy's formations, interfere with their methods of operations, change the rules in which they are used to following, go contrary to their standard training.
  In this way you remove the supporting pillar, the common link that makes a group of men an effective fighting force.
  第二十六計 指桑罵槐
  reviling/abusing the locust tree while pointing to the mulberry
  To discipline, control, or warn others whose status or position excludes them from direct confrontation; use analogy and innuendo. Without directly naming names, those accused cannot retaliate without revealing their complicity.
  第二十七計 假癡不癲
  feigning madness without becoming insane
  Hide behind the mask of a fool, a drunk, or a madman to create confusion about your intentions and motivations. Lure your opponent into underestimating your ability until, overconfident, he drops his guard. Then you may attack.
  第二十八計 上屋抽梯
  removing the ladder after the enemy has climbed up the roof
  With baits and deceptions, lure your enemy into treacherous terrain. Then cut off his lines of communication and avenue of escape. To save himself, he must fight both your own forces and the elements of nature.
  第二十九計 樹上開花
  putting artificial flowers on trees
  Tying silk blossoms on a dead tree gives the illusion that the tree is healthy. Through the use of artifice and disguise, make something of no value appear valuable; of no threat appear dangerous; of no use appear useful.
  第三十計 反客為主
  turning from the guest into the host
  Usurp leadership in a situation where you are normally subordinate. Infiltrate your target. Initially, pretend to be a guest to be accepted, but develop from inside and become the owner later.
  Chapter 6: Desperate Stratagems
  第三十一計 美人計
  using seductive women to corrupt the enemy
  Send your enemy beautiful women to cause discord within his camp. This strategy can work on three levels.
  First, the ruler becomes so enamoured with the beauty that he neglects his duties and allows his vigilance to wane.
  Second, other males at court will begin to display aggressive behaviour that inflames minor differences hindering co-operation and destroying morale.
  Third, other females at court, motivated by jealousy and envy, begin to plot intrigues further exacerbating the situation.
  第三十二計 空城計
  presenting a bold front to conceal unpreparedness
  When the enemy is superior in numbers and your situation is such that you expect to be overrun at any moment, then drop all pretense of military preparedness, act calmly and taunt the enemy, so that the enemy will think you have a huge ambush hidden for them.
  It works best by acting calm and at ease when your enemy expects you to be tense.
  第三十三計 反間計
  sowing discord among the enemy
  Undermine your enemy's ability to fight by secretly causing discord between him and his friends, allies, advisors, family, commanders, soldiers, and population. While he is preoccupied settling internal disputes, his ability to attack or defend is compromised.
  第三十四計 苦肉計
  deceiving the enemy by torturing one's own man
  Pretending to be injured has two possible applications. In the first, the enemy is lulled into relaxing his guard since he no longer considers you to be an immediate threat.
  The second is a way of ingratiating yourself to your enemy by pretending the injury was caused by a mutual enemy.
  第三十五計 連環計
  coordinating one stratagem with another
  In important matters, one should use several stratagems applied simultaneously after another as in a chain of stratagems. Keep different plans operating in an overall scheme; however, in this manner if any one strategy fails, then the chain breaks and the whole scheme fails.
  第三十六計 走為上
  decamping being the best; running away as the best choice