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中國被指試圖弱化全球氣候協議 (中英雙語)

青島希尼爾翻譯公司(www.eacrwc.tw)整理發布2015-12-10

希尼爾翻譯公司(www.eacrwc.tw)2015年12月10日了解到:As Beijing declared its first “red alert” for heavy smog this week, closing schools and curbing car use, Chinese negotiators at UN talks in Paris are being accused of trying to weaken a global climate accord due to be finalised by Friday. 就在北京本周首次啟動空氣重污染“紅色預警”、關閉學校并限制汽車使用之際,中國談判代表在巴黎聯合國氣候會議上被指試圖弱化定于周五敲定的全球氣候協議。(上圖圖右為參加巴黎氣候大會的中國氣候變化事務特別代表、中國代表團團長解振華在巴黎的一次新聞發布會上)

“It is very frustrating,” said one negotiator from a developed country after a meeting where he said Chinese officials had tried to water down efforts to create a common system for the way countries reported to the UN on their carbon dioxide emissions and climate change plans. “這非常令人沮喪,”某個發達國家的一名談判代表說。他表示,在稍早前召開的一個會上,中國官員試圖弱化國際社會創建一套共同制度的努力,該制度將統一各國向聯合國報告其二氧化碳排放和氣候變化計劃的方式。

Another envoy said Chinese delegates were also resisting a measure widely seen as crucial for a successful accord: a requirement for countries to update the pledges to limit their emissions, preferably every five years from about 2020. 另一名特使表示,中國代表還抵制一項被廣泛視為對成功協議至關重要的措施:要求各國更新其限制排放的承諾,最好從2020年左右開始每五年一次。

The envoy said China was supporting a general stocktaking review of countries’ pledges every five years but wanted any updating of the carbon dioxide emissions reduction targets contained in these plans to be voluntary. 這名特使表示,中國支持每五年一次對各國的承諾進行總體盤點,但希望在自愿基礎上對這些計劃所含的二氧化碳減排目標作出任何更新。

Heat-trapping carbon dioxide is an invisible greenhouse gas that differs from the soot and smog choking Beijing, but the two pollutants typically come from the same sources, such as coal-fired power plants. 具有吸熱效果的二氧化碳是一種不可見的溫室氣體,不同于給北京帶來空氣污染的煙灰和煙霧,但這兩類污染物通常來自相同來源,如燃煤電廠。

Beijing’s negotiating stance was causing anxiety among many delegates yesterday as the Paris talks intensified ahead of Friday’s deadline, partly because India was expected to be a bigger obstacle to a successful agreement. 隨著周五的最后期限逐漸臨近,巴黎會議加緊了談判,但北京方面的談判立場昨日導致很多與會代表精神焦慮,部分原因是人們曾以為印度會成為成功協議的更大障礙。

Narendra Modi, India prime minister, weighed into one of the most divisive issues of the conference on the eve of the two-week meeting, writing in the Financial Times that wealthy countries that “powered their way to prosperity on fossil fuel” had a moral duty to lead the fight against climate change. 印度總理納倫德拉?莫迪(Narendra Modi)在為期兩周的巴黎會議開幕前夕介入分歧最大的議題之一,他在英國《金融時報》撰文表示,“當年依靠化石燃料實現富裕”的發達國家,有道義責任帶頭應對氣候變化。

In contrast, China president Xi Jinping has garnered public credit for a series of bold climate vows before the Paris meeting. He made a joint announcement with Barack Obama, his US counterpart, on Beijing’s plans to combat global warming and later pledged to launch a national carbon trading system as early as 2017. 與此相反,巴黎會議前一系列大膽的氣候誓言使中國國家主席習近平贏得了贊譽。他與美國總統巴拉克?奧巴馬(Barack Obama)發表了一份聯合聲明,闡述北京方面應對全球變暖的計劃,后來又承諾最快在2017年推出一個全國碳交易體系。

In Paris, however, one delegate said that behind closed doors, India had been “quite helpful” on some measures while China’s negotiators had been siding with other developing countries on several divisive issues, including a push to provide more information about the volume of each country’s emissions. 但據一名與會代表透露,在巴黎舉行的閉門談判期間,印度在一些措施上“相當配合”,而中國談判代表在數個分歧問題(包括要求各國提供關于排放量的更多信息的努力)上與其他發展中國家站在一邊。

Under rules dating back to 1992, China has been classed as a developing country that has not been obliged to report to the UN on its carbon emissions as regularly as older industrialised nations, a situation the US and most other developed countries say must be changed in the Paris climate agreement. 根據可追溯到1992年的規則,中國被列為發展中國家,迄今沒有義務像更早工業化的國家那樣定期向聯合國報告碳排放量。美國和其他大多數發達國家表示,巴黎氣候協議必須改變這種局面。

China, the world’s biggest carbon emitter, has for example only given the UN two “national communications” reports since 1992, detailing its emissions and what it was doing to limit them. Its latest report was in 2012 but contained only 2005 emissions data. 例如,碳排放量全球最大的中國,自1992年以來僅向聯合國提交了兩份《國家信息通報》,介紹其排放情況以及它在采取什么措施限制排放。其最新報告是在2012年提交的,但僅包含2005年的排放數據。

Wealthy countries are required to produce such reports regularly, along with other data that are then subjected to a review. 富裕國家需要定期提交這樣的報告,以及隨后要接受審議的其他數據。

They argue that because developing countries are responsible for a growing share of global emissions, the reporting and monitoring system needs to be updated. 這些國家提出,由于發展中國家占全球排放量的比重越來越大,因此報告和監測制度需要更新。

China accounts for 27 per cent of carbon emissions and India is the fourth biggest emitter with just over 7 per cent of the global total. 中國占全球碳排放的27%,印度是全球第四大排放國,占比略微超過7%。

“You need to have those basic elements of [emissions] inventories, reporting and review on the developing country side as well,” said Todd Stern, US climate envoy, adding the reporting done by developing countries at the moment was “at a pretty rudimentary level”. “你需要對發展中國家也有這些基本要素,包括(排放量)清單、報告和審議,”美國氣候變化問題特使托德?斯特恩(Todd Stern)表示。他補充說,目前發展中國家所做的報告處于“相當粗糙的水平”。

China does produce domestic emissions data, some of which experts question, but is often reluctant to divulge information on the basis of international agreements. 中國確實發布國內排放量數據(其中一些受到專家質疑),但往往不愿根據國際協議發布信息。

In a sign of the tensions growing in private meetings this week, Miguel Arias Ca?ete, EU climate commissioner, said that although Mr Xi and other world leaders had called for strong climate action at the opening of the Paris talks, “things are much more complex” inside the negotiating rooms. 本周閉門會議上氣氛日益緊張的跡象之一是,歐盟氣候專員米格爾?阿里亞斯?卡涅特(Miguel Arias Ca?ete)表示,盡管習近平和其他世界領導人在巴黎會議開幕日呼吁采取強有力的氣候行動,但在談判室里面“情況復雜得多”。

Meanwhile, a public war of words intensified yesterday over another fraught reporting issue in the talks: a 2009 pledge wealthy countries made to deliver $100bn a year by 2020 to help developing countries deal with climate change. 與此同時,一場公開的口水戰昨日升溫,其癥結是另一個不愉快的報告問題:富裕國家曾在2009年承諾,將在2020年之前每年拿出1000億美元幫助發展中國家應對氣候變化。

Prakash Javadekar, India’s environment minister, said developed countries “have not made much headway” towards the target and questioned a recent OECD study that concluded as much as $62bn in funding from public and private sources was delivered in 2014. Wealthy countries, meanwhile, said because much more money had been pledged before the Paris meeting that the tally for 2020 was now more than $90bn. 印度環境部長普拉卡什?雅瓦德卡爾(Prakash Javadekar)表示,發達國家向著這個目標“沒有取得多大進展”,他還質疑經合組織(OECD)最近的一項研究,該研究的結論是,2014年到位的公共和私人部門資金達到620億美元。與此同時,富裕國家表示,由于各方在巴黎會議之前作出了數額大得多的承諾,2020年的援助總額現在已超過900億美元。

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