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 盤點各國高速公路收費(雙語)

7月21日,交通運輸部公布《收費公路管理條例》修訂征求意見稿,目前正向社會公開征求意見,截止日期為今年8月20日。
  該意見稿中,最引人關注的點在于新稿調整了收費的期限。根據意見稿,政府收費公路中的高速公路將不再規定具體的收費期限,而是實行統借統還,以實際償債期為準,確定收費期限。
  至于特許經營高速公路,如果它滿足投資規模大,回報周期長的特點,其經營期限可以約定超過30年,但不滿足上述條件則不能超過。
  It's been reported that China will start charging highway tolls regularly for the long haul.
  The news comes as the Ministry of Transport releases a newly revised draft of rules on highway tolls. In the coming weeks until August 20, authorities will be soliciting public opinions on the draft.
  In one of the draft's highlights, the time limit for charging tolls placed by the government is removed. Instead, the highways could determine their own timeline according to their solvency on loans, a move that could make the charging periods longer.
  Additionally, the operating periods for franchised highways with large-scale investments and long payback periods are allowed to be extended beyond 30 years.
  現行條例如何規定?
  What Are the Current Rules on Highway Tolls?
  
  現行條例規定,政府還貸公路最長收費期限,在中西部省市不得超過20年,其他省市則不得超過15年;經營性公路最長收費期限,在中西部省市不得超過30年,其他省市則不得超過25年。
  According to the current regulations, the toll periods for highways run by the government are not to be longer than 20 years, while the franchised highways are not allowed to charge for more than 30 years.
  高速公路為何擬長期收費?
  Main Reason Behind Long-Term Toll
  
  專家表示,目前之所以高速公路要長期收費,很大的原因在于兩個字——虧損。高速公路建設成本不斷攀升,在規定期限內無法按時償清貸款,因此高速公路處于虧損狀態。
  據統計,2014年,全國收費公路虧損1571.1億元,比2013年翻了約2.4倍。
  One of the main reasons behind the change is that most highways in China are operating at a loss, while costs are rising and the operators cannot make loan payments on time.
  According to statistics, total losses incurred by highways across China have reached 150 billion Yuan, or around 24 billion US dollars, in 2014.
  網友反應
  Netizens' Reactions
  
  面對高速公路期限調整的消息,網友們反應不一。有人認為,長期收費有合理性,可以有效分流車流量,緩解交通壓力。而有人則認為長期收費會讓高速公路變成“永久提款機”。
  對此專家表示,高速公路不會成為永久提款機,因為大部分高速公路處于巨額虧損,連還債都很困難,更不用說“提款”了。
  Some netizens think the change is reasonable, since it may help reduce traffic pressure on the highways, while others doubt that the highways may become 'permanent money withdrawal machines'.
  Many experts have defended the draft, saying it's impossible for the highways to become 'money withdrawal machines', since many of them can't even clear their debts.
  其他舉措
  Other Measures
  
  目前,對收費公路,民眾的期待與呼吁用六個字就可以概括:提速,降費,透明。
  為了滿足民眾的需求,意見稿規定,“收費道口的設置和開放應符合車輛快速通行的需要”,同時要求“利用新技術推行不停車收費,逐漸減少人工收費方式”,提高通行效率。此外,意見稿還特別要求收費公路的信息公開,經營者要定期向社會公布年度通行費、年度還本付息、養護、運營管理、稅費等費用支出等信息。
  For a long time, many people have hoped China's highways will offer 'higher speed, lower tolls and more transparency', since the tolls are sometimes too high and the roads may become congested, especially on holidays, causing serious traffic jams.
  According to the draft, new technologies may be applied to charge vehicles without stopping them, which can increase the efficiency of the highways.
  Additionally, the operators of the turnpikes are required to release their annual expenses to the public, in an attempt to make the turnpikes' information transparent.
  國外高速公路如何收費?
  Highways Charging Measures in Other Countries
  美國
  In the United States:
  
  美國高速公路極少收費,收費路段占全國高速公路的比例只有大約十分之一。
  美國目前已建成的高速公路基本上靠政府稅收,在建設時,聯邦政府出資修建所花的費用占總費用的90%。而聯邦政府的資金由“聯邦公路信托基金”提供,其資金來源為機動車的燃油稅,購置稅和使用稅。
  因為聯邦財政出資的緣故,高速公路被視作公共產品,理應免費。
  In the United States, only 10 percent of the highways are toll-based.
  Highways across the U.S. are mainly funded with government revenues.
  The federal government provides 90 percent of the investments on building highways, and the funding comes from the Federal Highway Trust Fund, which is supported by vehicles' fuel taxes, purchase taxes and users' taxes.
  Thus, highways in America are regarded as free public services.
  德國
  In Germany:
  
  根據法律規定,德國高速公路只對重量超過12噸(含掛車)的貨車收費。德國人認為,大貨車對公路的損害程度更大,而且排放更多,造成環境污染,所以理應負擔公路維護和環保成本。
  In Germany, only trucks and vans weighing over 12 tons are charged on highways.
  It's believed that trucks could cause more serious damages on roads and discharge more waste, causing more pollution.
  法國
  In France:
  
  法國四分之三的高速公路都是特許經營公路,意味著要收取通行費。過路費的標準由公司和法國環境與可持續發展部下屬的基礎設施局協商而定。經營公司不得隨意漲價。
  About 75 percent of the highways in France are permitted to operate as franchises, which means they could charge tolls.
  The standard of tolls are negotiated between the highway's operators and the infrastructure bureau, under the environment and sustainable development authorities.
  The operators are prohibited from randomly increasing the tolls.

 

希尼爾翻譯公司  2015-07-23

 

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